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Understanding PPA-Completeness

Authors: Xiaotie Deng, Jack R. Edmonds, Zhe Feng, Zhengyang Liu, Qi Qi, and Zeying Xu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

We consider the problem of finding a fully colored base triangle on the 2-dimensional Möbius band under the standard boundary condition, proving it to be PPA-complete. The proof is based on a construction for the DPZP problem, that of finding a zero point under a discrete version of continuity condition. It further derives PPA-completeness for versions on the Möbius band of other related discrete fixed point type problems, and a special version of the Tucker problem, finding an edge such that if the value of one end vertex is x, the other is -x, given a special anti-symmetry boundary condition. More generally, this applies to other non-orientable spaces, including the projective plane and the Klein bottle. However, since those models have a closed boundary, we rely on a version of the PPA that states it as to find another fixed point giving a fixed point. This model also makes it presentationally simple for an extension to a high dimensional discrete fixed point problem on a non-orientable (nearly) hyper-grid with a constant side length.

Cite as

Xiaotie Deng, Jack R. Edmonds, Zhe Feng, Zhengyang Liu, Qi Qi, and Zeying Xu. Understanding PPA-Completeness. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 23:1-23:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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  author =	{Deng, Xiaotie and Edmonds, Jack R. and Feng, Zhe and Liu, Zhengyang and Qi, Qi and Xu, Zeying},
  title =	{{Understanding PPA-Completeness}},
  booktitle =	{31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-008-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{50},
  editor =	{Raz, Ran},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58310},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fixed Point Computation, PPA-Completeness}
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