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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

We study the problem of constructing a linear sketch of minimum dimension that allows approximation of a given real-valued function f : F_2^n - > R with small expected squared error. We develop a general theory of linear sketching for such functions through which we analyze their dimension for most commonly studied types of valuation functions: additive, budget-additive, coverage, alpha-Lipschitz submodular and matroid rank functions. This gives a characterization of how many bits of information have to be stored about the input x so that one can compute f under additive updates to its coordinates.
Our results are tight in most cases and we also give extensions to the distributional version of the problem where the input x in F_2^n is generated uniformly at random. Using known connections with dynamic streaming algorithms, both upper and lower bounds on dimension obtained in our work extend to the space complexity of algorithms evaluating f(x) under long sequences of additive updates to the input x presented as a stream. Similar results hold for simultaneous communication in a distributed setting.

Grigory Yaroslavtsev and Samson Zhou. Approximate F_2-Sketching of Valuation Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 69:1-69:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{yaroslavtsev_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.69, author = {Yaroslavtsev, Grigory and Zhou, Samson}, title = {{Approximate F\underline2-Sketching of Valuation Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {69:1--69:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.69}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112848}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.69}, annote = {Keywords: Sublinear algorithms, linear sketches, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)

We study the relation between streaming algorithms and linear sketching algorithms, in the context of binary updates. We show that for inputs in n dimensions, the existence of efficient streaming algorithms which can process Omega(n^2) updates implies efficient linear sketching algorithms with comparable cost. This improves upon the previous work of Li, Nguyen and Woodruff [Yi Li et al., 2014] and Ai, Hu, Li and Woodruff [Yuqing Ai et al., 2016] which required a triple-exponential number of updates to achieve a similar result for updates over integers. We extend our results to updates modulo p for integers p >= 2, and to approximation instead of exact computation.

Kaave Hosseini, Shachar Lovett, and Grigory Yaroslavtsev. Optimality of Linear Sketching Under Modular Updates. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 13:1-13:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{hosseini_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.13, author = {Hosseini, Kaave and Lovett, Shachar and Yaroslavtsev, Grigory}, title = {{Optimality of Linear Sketching Under Modular Updates}}, booktitle = {34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)}, pages = {13:1--13:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-116-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {137}, editor = {Shpilka, Amir}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108355}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.13}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, linear sketching, streaming algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

We initiate a systematic study of linear sketching over F_2. For a given Boolean function treated as f : F_2^n -> F_2 a randomized F_2-sketch is a distribution M over d x n matrices with elements over F_2 such that Mx suffices for computing f(x) with high probability. Such sketches for d << n can be used to design small-space distributed and streaming algorithms.
Motivated by these applications we study a connection between F_2-sketching and a two-player one-way communication game for the corresponding XOR-function. We conjecture that F_2-sketching is optimal for this communication game. Our results confirm this conjecture for multiple important classes of functions: 1) low-degree F_2-polynomials, 2) functions with sparse Fourier spectrum, 3) most symmetric functions, 4) recursive majority function. These results rely on a new structural theorem that shows that F_2-sketching is optimal (up to constant factors) for uniformly distributed inputs.
Furthermore, we show that (non-uniform) streaming algorithms that have to process random updates over F_2 can be constructed as F_2-sketches for the uniform distribution. In contrast with the previous work of Li, Nguyen and Woodruff (STOC'14) who show an analogous result for linear sketches over integers in the adversarial setting our result does not require the stream length to be triply exponential in n and holds for streams of length O(n) constructed through uniformly random updates.

Sampath Kannan, Elchanan Mossel, Swagato Sanyal, and Grigory Yaroslavtsev. Linear Sketching over F_2. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 8:1-8:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{kannan_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.8, author = {Kannan, Sampath and Mossel, Elchanan and Sanyal, Swagato and Yaroslavtsev, Grigory}, title = {{Linear Sketching over F\underline2}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {8:1--8:37}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88819}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.8}, annote = {Keywords: Linear sketch, Streaming algorithms, XOR-functions, Communication complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

The EQUALITY problem is usually one’s first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem by focusing on three subtle aspects. The first is to consider the expected communication cost (at a worst-case input) for a protocol that uses limited interaction—i.e., a bounded number of rounds of communication—and whose error probability is zero or close to it. The second is to treat the false negative error rate separately from the false positive error rate. The third is to consider the information cost of such protocols. We obtain asymptotically optimal rounds-versus-cost tradeoffs for EQUALITY: both expected communication cost and information cost scale as Theta(log log ... log n), with r-1 logs, where r is the number of rounds. These bounds hold even when the false negative rate approaches 1. For the case of zero-error communication cost, we obtain essentially matching bounds, up to a tiny additive constant. We also provide some applications.

Joshua Brody, Amit Chakrabarti, Ranganath Kondapally, David P. Woodruff, and Grigory Yaroslavtsev. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 545-581, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{brody_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.545, author = {Brody, Joshua and Chakrabarti, Amit and Kondapally, Ranganath and Woodruff, David P. and Yaroslavtsev, Grigory}, title = {{Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {545--581}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.545}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-47229}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.545}, annote = {Keywords: equality, communication complexity, information complexity} }

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