Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 223, 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)

Motivated by computing duplication patterns in sequences, a new fundamental problem called the longest letter-duplicated subsequence (LLDS) is proposed. Given a sequence S of length n, a letter-duplicated subsequence is a subsequence of S in the form of x₁^{d₁}x₂^{d₂}⋯ x_k^{d_k} with x_i ∈ Σ, x_j≠ x_{j+1} and d_i ≥ 2 for all i in [k] and j in [k-1]. A linear time algorithm for computing the longest letter-duplicated subsequence (LLDS) of S can be easily obtained. In this paper, we focus on two variants of this problem. We first consider the constrained version when Σ is unbounded, each letter appears in S at least 6 times and all the letters in Σ must appear in the solution. We show that the problem is NP-hard (a further twist indicates that the problem does not admit any polynomial time approximation). The reduction is from possibly the simplest version of SAT that is NP-complete, (≤ 2,1, ≤ 3)-SAT, where each variable appears at most twice positively and exact once negatively, and each clause contains at most three literals and some clauses must contain exactly two literals. (We hope that this technique will serve as a general tool to help us proving the NP-hardness for some more tricky sequence problems involving only one sequence - much harder than with at least two input sequences, which we apply successfully at the end of the paper on some extra variations of the LLDS problem.) We then show that when each letter appears in S at most 3 times, then the problem admits a factor 1.5-O(1/n) approximation. Finally, we consider the weighted version, where the weight of a block x_i^{d_i} (d_i ≥ 2) could be any positive function which might not grow with d_i. We give a non-trivial O(n²) time dynamic programming algorithm for this version, i.e., computing an LD-subsequence of S whose weight is maximized.

Wenfeng Lai, Adiesha Liyanage, Binhai Zhu, and Peng Zou. Beyond the Longest Letter-Duplicated Subsequence Problem. In 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 223, pp. 7:1-7:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{lai_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2022.7, author = {Lai, Wenfeng and Liyanage, Adiesha and Zhu, Binhai and Zou, Peng}, title = {{Beyond the Longest Letter-Duplicated Subsequence Problem}}, booktitle = {33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)}, pages = {7:1--7:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-234-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {223}, editor = {Bannai, Hideo and Holub, Jan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161348}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.7}, annote = {Keywords: Segmental duplications, Tandem duplications, Longest common subsequence, NP-completeness, Dynamic programming} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 161, 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)

Recently, due to the genomic sequence analysis in several types of cancer, genomic data based on copy number profiles (CNP for short) are getting more and more popular. A CNP is a vector where each component is a non-negative integer representing the number of copies of a specific segment of interest. The motivation is that in the late stage of certain types of cancer, the genomes are progressing rapidly by segmental duplications and deletions, and hence obtaining the exact sequences becomes difficult. Instead, the number of copies of important segments can be predicted from expression analysis and carries important biological information. Therefore, significant research has recently been devoted to the analysis of genomic data represented as CNP’s.
In this paper, we present two streams of results. The first is the negative results on two open problems regarding the computational complexity of the Minimum Copy Number Generation (MCNG) problem posed by Qingge et al. in 2018. The Minimum Copy Number Generation (MCNG) is defined as follows: given a string S in which each character represents a gene or segment, and a CNP C, compute a string T from S, with the minimum number of segmental duplications and deletions, such that cnp(T)=C. It was shown by Qingge et al. that the problem is NP-hard if the duplications are tandem and they left the open question of whether the problem remains NP-hard if arbitrary duplications and/or deletions are used. We answer this question affirmatively in this paper; in fact, we prove that it is NP-hard to even obtain a constant factor approximation. This is achieved through a general-purpose lemma on set-cover reductions that require an exact cover in one direction, but not the other, which might be of independent interest. We also prove that the corresponding parameterized version is W[1]-hard, answering another open question by Qingge et al.
The other result is positive and is based on a new (and more general) problem regarding CNP’s. The Copy Number Profile Conforming (CNPC) problem is formally defined as follows: given two CNP’s C₁ and C₂, compute two strings S₁ and S₂ with cnp(S₁)=C₁ and cnp(S₂)=C₂ such that the distance between S₁ and S₂, d(S₁,S₂), is minimized. Here, d(S₁,S₂) is a very general term, which means it could be any genome rearrangement distance (like reversal, transposition, and tandem duplication, etc). We make the first step by showing that if d(S₁,S₂) is measured by the breakpoint distance then the problem is polynomially solvable. We expect that this will trigger some related research along the line in the near future.

Manuel Lafond, Binhai Zhu, and Peng Zou. Genomic Problems Involving Copy Number Profiles: Complexity and Algorithms. In 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 161, pp. 22:1-22:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{lafond_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2020.22, author = {Lafond, Manuel and Zhu, Binhai and Zou, Peng}, title = {{Genomic Problems Involving Copy Number Profiles: Complexity and Algorithms}}, booktitle = {31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)}, pages = {22:1--22:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-149-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {161}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Weimann, Oren}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121471}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.22}, annote = {Keywords: Computational genomics, cancer genomics, copy number profiles, NP-hardness, approximation algorithms, FPT algorithms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

In computational biology, tandem duplication is an important biological phenomenon which can occur either at the genome or at the DNA level. A tandem duplication takes a copy of a genome segment and inserts it right after the segment - this can be represented as the string operation AXB ⇒ AXXB. Tandem exon duplications have been found in many species such as human, fly or worm, and have been largely studied in computational biology.
The Tandem Duplication (TD) distance problem we investigate in this paper is defined as follows: given two strings S and T over the same alphabet, compute the smallest sequence of tandem duplications required to convert S to T. The natural question of whether the TD distance can be computed in polynomial time was posed in 2004 by Leupold et al. and had remained open, despite the fact that tandem duplications have received much attention ever since. In this paper, we prove that this problem is NP-hard, settling the 16-year old open problem. We further show that this hardness holds even if all characters of S are distinct. This is known as the exemplar TD distance, which is of special relevance in bioinformatics. One of the tools we develop for the reduction is a new problem called the Cost-Effective Subgraph, for which we obtain W[1]-hardness results that might be of independent interest. We finally show that computing the exemplar TD distance between S and T is fixed-parameter tractable. Our results open the door to many other questions, and we conclude with several open problems.

Manuel Lafond, Binhai Zhu, and Peng Zou. The Tandem Duplication Distance Is NP-Hard. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 15:1-15:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{lafond_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.15, author = {Lafond, Manuel and Zhu, Binhai and Zou, Peng}, title = {{The Tandem Duplication Distance Is NP-Hard}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {15:1--15:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118769}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.15}, annote = {Keywords: Tandem duplication, Text processing, Formal languages, Computational genomics, FPT algorithms} }

X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Feedback submitted

Please try again later or send an E-mail