3 Search Results for "Marchand, Bertrand"


Document
Automated Design of Dynamic Programming Schemes for RNA Folding with Pseudoknots

Authors: Bertrand Marchand, Sebastian Will, Sarah J. Berkemer, Laurent Bulteau, and Yann Ponty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 242, 22nd International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2022)


Abstract
Despite being a textbook application of dynamic programming (DP) and routine task in RNA structure analysis, RNA secondary structure prediction remains challenging whenever pseudoknots come into play. To circumvent the NP-hardness of energy minimization in realistic energy models, specialized algorithms have been proposed for restricted conformation classes that capture the most frequently observed configurations. While these methods rely on hand-crafted DP schemes, we generalize and fully automatize the design of DP pseudoknot prediction algorithms. We formalize the problem of designing DP algorithms for an (infinite) class of conformations, modeled by (a finite number of) fatgraphs, and automatically build DP schemes minimizing their algorithmic complexity. We propose an algorithm for the problem, based on the tree-decomposition of a well-chosen representative structure, which we simplify and reinterpret as a DP scheme. The algorithm is fixed-parameter tractable for the tree-width tw of the fatgraph, and its output represents a 𝒪(n^{tw+1}) algorithm for predicting the MFE folding of an RNA of length n. Our general framework supports general energy models, partition function computations, recursive substructures and partial folding, and could pave the way for algebraic dynamic programming beyond the context-free case.

Cite as

Bertrand Marchand, Sebastian Will, Sarah J. Berkemer, Laurent Bulteau, and Yann Ponty. Automated Design of Dynamic Programming Schemes for RNA Folding with Pseudoknots. In 22nd International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 242, pp. 7:1-7:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{marchand_et_al:LIPIcs.WABI.2022.7,
  author =	{Marchand, Bertrand and Will, Sebastian and Berkemer, Sarah J. and Bulteau, Laurent and Ponty, Yann},
  title =	{{Automated Design of Dynamic Programming Schemes for RNA Folding with Pseudoknots}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2022)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-243-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{242},
  editor =	{Boucher, Christina and Rahmann, Sven},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2022.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170414},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2022.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: RNA folding, treewidth, dynamic programming}
}
Document
A New Parametrization for Independent Set Reconfiguration and Applications to RNA Kinetics

Authors: Laurent Bulteau, Bertrand Marchand, and Yann Ponty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)


Abstract
In this paper, we study the Independent Set (IS) reconfiguration problem in graphs. An IS reconfiguration is a scenario transforming an IS L into another IS R, inserting/removing vertices one step at a time while keeping the cardinalities of intermediate sets greater than a specified threshold. We focus on the bipartite variant where only start and end vertices are allowed in intermediate ISs. Our motivation is an application to the RNA energy barrier problem from bioinformatics, for which a natural parameter would be the difference between the initial IS size and the threshold. We first show the para-NP hardness of the problem with respect to this parameter. We then investigate a new parameter, the cardinality range, denoted by ρ which captures the maximum deviation of the reconfiguration scenario from optimal sets (formally, ρ is the maximum difference between the cardinalities of an intermediate IS and an optimal IS). We give two different routes to show that this problem is in XP for ρ: The first is a direct O(n²)-space, O(n^{2ρ+2.5})-time algorithm based on a separation lemma; The second builds on a parameterized equivalence with the directed pathwidth problem, leading to a O(n^{ρ+1})-space, O(n^{ρ+2})-time algorithm for the reconfiguration problem through an adaptation of a prior result by Tamaki [Tamaki, 2011]. This equivalence is an interesting result in its own right, connecting a reconfiguration problem (which is essentially a connectivity problem within a reconfiguration network) with a structural parameter for an auxiliary graph. We demonstrate the practicality of these algorithms, and the relevance of our introduced parameter, by considering the application of our algorithms on random small-degree instances for our problem. Moreover, we reformulate the computation of the energy barrier between two RNA secondary structures, a classic hard problem in computational biology, as an instance of bipartite reconfiguration. Our results on IS reconfiguration thus yield an XP algorithm in O(n^{ρ+2}) for the energy barrier problem, improving upon a partial O(n^{2ρ+2.5}) algorithm for the problem.

Cite as

Laurent Bulteau, Bertrand Marchand, and Yann Ponty. A New Parametrization for Independent Set Reconfiguration and Applications to RNA Kinetics. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 11:1-11:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{bulteau_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.11,
  author =	{Bulteau, Laurent and Marchand, Bertrand and Ponty, Yann},
  title =	{{A New Parametrization for Independent Set Reconfiguration and Applications to RNA Kinetics}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-216-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{214},
  editor =	{Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-153946},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: reconfiguration problems - parameterized algorithms - RNA bioinformatics - directed pathwidth}
}
Document
Tree Diet: Reducing the Treewidth to Unlock FPT Algorithms in RNA Bioinformatics

Authors: Bertrand Marchand, Yann Ponty, and Laurent Bulteau

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 201, 21st International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2021)


Abstract
Hard graph problems are ubiquitous in Bioinformatics, inspiring the design of specialized Fixed-Parameter Tractable algorithms, many of which rely on a combination of tree-decomposition and dynamic programming. The time/space complexities of such approaches hinge critically on low values for the treewidth tw of the input graph. In order to extend their scope of applicability, we introduce the Tree-Diet problem, i.e. the removal of a minimal set of edges such that a given tree-decomposition can be slimmed down to a prescribed treewidth tw'. Our rationale is that the time gained thanks to a smaller treewidth in a parameterized algorithm compensates the extra post-processing needed to take deleted edges into account. Our core result is an FPT dynamic programming algorithm for Tree-Diet, using 2^{O(tw)}n time and space. We complement this result with parameterized complexity lower-bounds for stronger variants (e.g., NP-hardness when tw' or tw-tw' is constant). We propose a prototype implementation for our approach which we apply on difficult instances of selected RNA-based problems: RNA design, sequence-structure alignment, and search of pseudoknotted RNAs in genomes, revealing very encouraging results. This work paves the way for a wider adoption of tree-decomposition-based algorithms in Bioinformatics.

Cite as

Bertrand Marchand, Yann Ponty, and Laurent Bulteau. Tree Diet: Reducing the Treewidth to Unlock FPT Algorithms in RNA Bioinformatics. In 21st International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 201, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{marchand_et_al:LIPIcs.WABI.2021.7,
  author =	{Marchand, Bertrand and Ponty, Yann and Bulteau, Laurent},
  title =	{{Tree Diet: Reducing the Treewidth to Unlock FPT Algorithms in RNA Bioinformatics}},
  booktitle =	{21st International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2021)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-200-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{201},
  editor =	{Carbone, Alessandra and El-Kebir, Mohammed},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2021.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143604},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2021.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: RNA, treewidth, FPT algorithms, RNA design, structure-sequence alignment}
}
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