3 Search Results for "Nguyen, Hai H."


Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
Decidability of Graph Neural Networks via Logical Characterizations

Authors: Michael Benedikt, Chia-Hsuan Lu, Boris Motik, and Tony Tan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We present results concerning the expressiveness and decidability of a popular graph learning formalism, graph neural networks (GNNs), exploiting connections with logic. We use a family of recently-discovered decidable logics involving "Presburger quantifiers". We show how to use these logics to measure the expressiveness of classes of GNNs, in some cases getting exact correspondences between the expressiveness of logics and GNNs. We also employ the logics, and the techniques used to analyze them, to obtain decision procedures for verification problems over GNNs. We complement this with undecidability results for static analysis problems involving the logics, as well as for GNN verification problems.

Cite as

Michael Benedikt, Chia-Hsuan Lu, Boris Motik, and Tony Tan. Decidability of Graph Neural Networks via Logical Characterizations. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 127:1-127:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{benedikt_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.127,
  author =	{Benedikt, Michael and Lu, Chia-Hsuan and Motik, Boris and Tan, Tony},
  title =	{{Decidability of Graph Neural Networks via Logical Characterizations}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{127:1--127:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.127},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202708},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.127},
  annote =	{Keywords: Logic, Graph Neural Networks}
}
Document
Tight Estimate of the Local Leakage Resilience of the Additive Secret-Sharing Scheme & Its Consequences

Authors: Hemanta K. Maji, Hai H. Nguyen, Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky, Tom Suad, Mingyuan Wang, Xiuyu Ye, and Albert Yu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 230, 3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022)


Abstract
Innovative side-channel attacks have repeatedly exposed the secrets of cryptosystems. Benhamouda, Degwekar, Ishai, and Rabin (CRYPTO-2018) introduced local leakage resilience of secret-sharing schemes to study some of these vulnerabilities. In this framework, the objective is to characterize the unintended information revelation about the secret by obtaining independent leakage from each secret share. This work accurately quantifies the vulnerability of the additive secret-sharing scheme to local leakage attacks and its consequences for other secret-sharing schemes. Consider the additive secret-sharing scheme over a prime field among k parties, where the secret shares are stored in their natural binary representation, requiring λ bits - the security parameter. We prove that the reconstruction threshold k = ω(log λ) is necessary to protect against local physical-bit probing attacks, improving the previous ω(log λ/log log λ) lower bound. This result is a consequence of accurately determining the distinguishing advantage of the "parity-of-parity" physical-bit local leakage attack proposed by Maji, Nguyen, Paskin-Cherniavsky, Suad, and Wang (EUROCRYPT-2021). Our lower bound is optimal because the additive secret-sharing scheme is perfectly secure against any (k-1)-bit (global) leakage and (statistically) secure against (arbitrary) one-bit local leakage attacks when k = ω(log λ). Any physical-bit local leakage attack extends to (1) physical-bit local leakage attacks on the Shamir secret-sharing scheme with adversarially-chosen evaluation places, and (2) local leakage attacks on the Massey secret-sharing scheme corresponding to any linear code. In particular, for Shamir’s secret-sharing scheme, the reconstruction threshold k = ω(log λ) is necessary when the number of parties is n = O(λ log λ). Our analysis of the "parity-of-parity" attack’s distinguishing advantage establishes it as the best-known local leakage attack in these scenarios. Our work employs Fourier-analytic techniques to analyze the "parity-of-parity" attack on the additive secret-sharing scheme. We accurately estimate an exponential sum that captures the vulnerability of this secret-sharing scheme to the parity-of-parity attack, a quantity that is also closely related to the "discrepancy" of the Irwin-Hall probability distribution.

Cite as

Hemanta K. Maji, Hai H. Nguyen, Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky, Tom Suad, Mingyuan Wang, Xiuyu Ye, and Albert Yu. Tight Estimate of the Local Leakage Resilience of the Additive Secret-Sharing Scheme & Its Consequences. In 3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 230, pp. 16:1-16:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{maji_et_al:LIPIcs.ITC.2022.16,
  author =	{Maji, Hemanta K. and Nguyen, Hai H. and Paskin-Cherniavsky, Anat and Suad, Tom and Wang, Mingyuan and Ye, Xiuyu and Yu, Albert},
  title =	{{Tight Estimate of the Local Leakage Resilience of the Additive Secret-Sharing Scheme \& Its Consequences}},
  booktitle =	{3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-238-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{230},
  editor =	{Dachman-Soled, Dana},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2022.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164943},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2022.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: leakage resilience, additive secret-sharing, Shamir’s secret-sharing, physical-bit probing leakage attacks, Fourier analysis}
}
Document
P₄-free Partition and Cover Numbers & Applications

Authors: Alexander R. Block, Simina Brânzei, Hemanta K. Maji, Himanshi Mehta, Tamalika Mukherjee, and Hai H. Nguyen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 199, 2nd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2021)


Abstract
P₄-free graphs- also known as cographs, complement-reducible graphs, or hereditary Dacey graphs-have been well studied in graph theory. Motivated by computer science and information theory applications, our work encodes (flat) joint probability distributions and Boolean functions as bipartite graphs and studies bipartite P₄-free graphs. For these applications, the graph properties of edge partitioning and covering a bipartite graph using the minimum number of these graphs are particularly relevant. Previously, such graph properties have appeared in leakage-resilient cryptography and (variants of) coloring problems. Interestingly, our covering problem is closely related to the well-studied problem of product (a.k.a., Prague) dimension of loopless undirected graphs, which allows us to employ algebraic lower-bounding techniques for the product/Prague dimension. We prove that computing these numbers is NP-complete, even for bipartite graphs. We establish a connection to the (unsolved) Zarankiewicz problem to show that there are bipartite graphs with size-N partite sets such that these numbers are at least ε⋅N^{1-2ε}, for ε ∈ {1/3,1/4,1/5,...}. Finally, we accurately estimate these numbers for bipartite graphs encoding well-studied Boolean functions from circuit complexity, such as set intersection, set disjointness, and inequality. For applications in information theory and communication & cryptographic complexity, we consider a system where a setup samples from a (flat) joint distribution and gives the participants, Alice and Bob, their portion from this joint sample. Alice and Bob’s objective is to non-interactively establish a shared key and extract the left-over entropy from their portion of the samples as independent private randomness. A genie, who observes the joint sample, provides appropriate assistance to help Alice and Bob with their objective. Lower bounds to the minimum size of the genie’s assistance translate into communication and cryptographic lower bounds. We show that (the log₂ of) the P₄-free partition number of a graph encoding the joint distribution that the setup uses is equivalent to the size of the genie’s assistance. Consequently, the joint distributions corresponding to the bipartite graphs constructed above with high P₄-free partition numbers correspond to joint distributions requiring more assistance from the genie. As a representative application in non-deterministic communication complexity, we study the communication complexity of nondeterministic protocols augmented by access to the equality oracle at the output. We show that (the log₂ of) the P₄-free cover number of the bipartite graph encoding a Boolean function f is equivalent to the minimum size of the nondeterministic input required by the parties (referred to as the communication complexity of f in this model). Consequently, the functions corresponding to the bipartite graphs with high P₄-free cover numbers have high communication complexity. Furthermore, there are functions with communication complexity close to the naïve protocol where the nondeterministic input reveals a party’s input. Finally, the access to the equality oracle reduces the communication complexity of computing set disjointness by a constant factor in contrast to the model where parties do not have access to the equality oracle. To compute the inequality function, we show an exponential reduction in the communication complexity, and this bound is optimal. On the other hand, access to the equality oracle is (nearly) useless for computing set intersection.

Cite as

Alexander R. Block, Simina Brânzei, Hemanta K. Maji, Himanshi Mehta, Tamalika Mukherjee, and Hai H. Nguyen. P₄-free Partition and Cover Numbers & Applications. In 2nd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 199, pp. 16:1-16:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{block_et_al:LIPIcs.ITC.2021.16,
  author =	{Block, Alexander R. and Br\^{a}nzei, Simina and Maji, Hemanta K. and Mehta, Himanshi and Mukherjee, Tamalika and Nguyen, Hai H.},
  title =	{{P₄-free Partition and Cover Numbers \& Applications}},
  booktitle =	{2nd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2021)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-197-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{199},
  editor =	{Tessaro, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2021.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143357},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2021.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Secure keys, Secure private randomness, Gray-Wyner system, Cryptographic complexity, Nondeterministic communication complexity, Leakage-resilience, Combinatorial optimization, Product dimension, Zarankiewicz problem, Algebraic lower-bounding techniques, P₄-free partition number, P₄-free cover number}
}
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