2 Search Results for "Tzalik, Elad"


Document
Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners

Authors: Asaf Petruschka, Shay Sapir, and Elad Tzalik

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We initiate the study of spanners in arbitrarily vertex- or edge-colored graphs (with no "legality" restrictions), that are resilient to failures of entire color classes. When a color fails, all vertices/edges of that color crash. An f-color fault-tolerant (f-CFT) t-spanner of an n-vertex colored graph G is a subgraph H that preserves distances up to factor t, even in the presence of at most f color faults. This notion generalizes the well-studied f-vertex/edge fault-tolerant (f-V/EFT) spanners. The size (number of edges) of an f-V/EFT spanner crucially depends on the number f of vertex/edge faults to be tolerated. In the colored variants, even a single color fault can correspond to an unbounded number of vertex/edge faults. The key conceptual contribution of this work is in showing that the size required by an f-CFT spanner is in fact comparable to its uncolored counterpart, with no dependency on the size of color classes. We provide optimal bounds on the size required by f-CFT (2k-1)-spanners, as follows: - When vertices have colors, we show an upper bound of O(f^{1-1/k} n^{1+1/k}) edges. This precisely matches the (tight) bounds for (2k-1)-spanners resilient to f individual vertex faults [Bodwin et al., SODA 2018; Bodwin and Patel, PODC 2019]. - For colored edges, we show that O(f n^{1+1/k}) edges are always sufficient. Further, we prove this is tight, i.e., we provide an Ω(f n^{1+1/k}) (worst-case) lower bound. The state-of-the-art bounds known for the corresponding uncolored setting of edge faults are (roughly) Θ(f^{1/2} n^{1+1/k}) [Bodwin et al., SODA 2018; Bodwin, Dinitz and Robelle, SODA 2022]. - We also consider a mixed model where both vertices and edges are colored. In this case, we show tight Θ(f^{2-1/k} n^{1+1/k}) bounds. Thus, CFT spanners exhibit an interesting phenomenon: while (individual) edge faults are "easier" than vertex faults, edge-color faults are "harder" than vertex-color faults. Our upper bounds are based on a generalization of the blocking set technique of [Bodwin and Patel, PODC 2019] for analyzing the (exponential-time) greedy algorithm for FT spanners. We complement them by providing efficient constructions of CFT spanners with similar size guarantees, based on the algorithm of [Dinitz and Robelle, PODC 2020].

Cite as

Asaf Petruschka, Shay Sapir, and Elad Tzalik. Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 88:1-88:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{petruschka_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88,
  author =	{Petruschka, Asaf and Sapir, Shay and Tzalik, Elad},
  title =	{{Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{88:1--88:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196160},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fault tolerance, Graph spanners}
}
Document
Resistance to Timing Attacks for Sampling and Privacy Preserving Schemes

Authors: Yoav Ben Dov, Liron David, Moni Naor, and Elad Tzalik

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 256, 4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023)


Abstract
Side channel attacks, and in particular timing attacks, are a fundamental obstacle for secure implementation of algorithms and cryptographic protocols. These attacks and countermeasures have been widely researched for decades. We offer a new perspective on resistance to timing attacks. We focus on sampling algorithms and their application to differential privacy. We define sampling algorithms that do not reveal information about the sampled output through their running time. More specifically: (1) We characterize the distributions that can be sampled from in a "time oblivious" way, meaning that the running time does not leak any information about the output. We provide an optimal algorithm in terms of randomness used to sample for these distributions. We give an example of an efficient randomized algorithm 𝒜 such that there is no subexponential algorithm with the same output as 𝒜 that does not reveal information on the output or the input, therefore we show leaking information on either the input or the output is unavoidable. (2) We consider the impact of timing attacks on (pure) differential privacy mechanisms. It turns out that if the range of the mechanism is unbounded, such as counting, then any time oblivious pure DP mechanism must give a useless output with constant probability (the constant is mechanism dependent) and must have infinite expected running time. We show that up to this limitations it is possible to transform any pure DP mechanism into a time oblivious one.

Cite as

Yoav Ben Dov, Liron David, Moni Naor, and Elad Tzalik. Resistance to Timing Attacks for Sampling and Privacy Preserving Schemes. In 4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 256, pp. 11:1-11:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bendov_et_al:LIPIcs.FORC.2023.11,
  author =	{Ben Dov, Yoav and David, Liron and Naor, Moni and Tzalik, Elad},
  title =	{{Resistance to Timing Attacks for Sampling and Privacy Preserving Schemes}},
  booktitle =	{4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-272-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{256},
  editor =	{Talwar, Kunal},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2023.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179329},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2023.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Differential Privacy}
}
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