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Monus Semantics in Vector Addition Systems with States

Authors Pascal Baumann , Khushraj Madnani , Filip Mazowiecki , Georg Zetzsche



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Author Details

Pascal Baumann
  • Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), Kaiserslautern, Germany
Khushraj Madnani
  • Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), Kaiserslautern, Germany
Filip Mazowiecki
  • University of Warsaw, Poland
Georg Zetzsche
  • Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), Kaiserslautern, Germany

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Wojciech Czerwiński and Sylvain Schmitz for discussions, and to Sylvain Schmitz for suggesting the term 'monus'.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Pascal Baumann, Khushraj Madnani, Filip Mazowiecki, and Georg Zetzsche. Monus Semantics in Vector Addition Systems with States. In 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 279, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.10

Abstract

Vector addition systems with states (VASS) are a popular model for concurrent systems. However, many decision problems have prohibitively high complexity. Therefore, it is sometimes useful to consider overapproximating semantics in which these problems can be decided more efficiently. We study an overapproximation, called monus semantics, that slightly relaxes the semantics of decrements: A key property of a vector addition systems is that in order to decrement a counter, this counter must have a positive value. In contrast, our semantics allows decrements of zero-valued counters: If such a transition is executed, the counter just remains zero. It turns out that if only a subset of transitions is used with monus semantics (and the others with classical semantics), then reachability is undecidable. However, we show that if monus semantics is used throughout, reachability remains decidable. In particular, we show that reachability for VASS with monus semantics is as hard as that of classical VASS (i.e. Ackermann-hard), while the zero-reachability and coverability are easier (i.e. EXPSPACE-complete and NP-complete, respectively). We provide a comprehensive account of the complexity of the general reachability problem, reachability of zero configurations, and coverability under monus semantics. We study these problems in general VASS, two-dimensional VASS, and one-dimensional VASS, with unary and binary counter updates.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Concurrency
Keywords
  • Vector addition systems
  • Overapproximation
  • Reachability
  • Coverability

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