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Beyond the Weakly Hard Model: Measuring the Performance Cost of Deadline Misses

Authors Paolo Pazzaglia, Luigi Pannocchi, Alessandro Biondi, Marco Di Natale

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Paolo Pazzaglia
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
Luigi Pannocchi
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
Alessandro Biondi
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
Marco Di Natale
  • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy

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Paolo Pazzaglia, Luigi Pannocchi, Alessandro Biondi, and Marco Di Natale. Beyond the Weakly Hard Model: Measuring the Performance Cost of Deadline Misses. In 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 106, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


Most works in schedulability analysis theory are based on the assumption that constraints on the performance of the application can be expressed by a very limited set of timing constraints (often simply hard deadlines) on a task model. This model is insufficient to represent a large number of systems in which deadlines can be missed, or in which late task responses affect the performance, but not the correctness of the application. For systems with a possible temporary overload, models like the m-K deadline have been proposed in the past. However, the m-K model has several limitations since it does not consider the state of the system and is largely unaware of the way in which the performance is affected by deadline misses (except for critical failures). In this paper, we present a state-based representation of the evolution of a system with respect to each deadline hit or miss event. Our representation is much more general (while hopefully concise enough) to represent the evolution in time of the performance of time-sensitive systems with possible time overloads. We provide the theoretical foundations for our model and also show an application to a simple system to give examples of the state representations and their use.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computer systems organization → Embedded software
  • control
  • real-time
  • cyber physical systems
  • weakly hard
  • deadline miss
  • performance


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