Arbitration-Induced Preemption Delays

Authors Farouk Hebbache, Florian Brandner, Mathieu Jan, Laurent Pautet

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Author Details

Farouk Hebbache
  • CEA, List, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Florian Brandner
  • LTCI, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, France
Mathieu Jan
  • CEA, List, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Laurent Pautet
  • LTCI, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, France

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Farouk Hebbache, Florian Brandner, Mathieu Jan, and Laurent Pautet. Arbitration-Induced Preemption Delays. In 31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 133, pp. 19:1-19:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


The interactions among concurrent tasks pose a challenge in the design of real-time multi-core systems, where blocking delays that tasks may experience while accessing shared memory have to be taken into consideration. Various memory arbitration schemes have been devised that address these issues, by providing trade-offs between predictability, average-case performance, and analyzability. Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a well-known arbitration scheme due to its simplicity and analyzability. However, it suffers from low resource utilization due to its non-work-conserving nature. We proposed in our recent work dynamic schemes based on TDM, showing work-conserving behavior in practice, while retaining the guarantees of TDM. These approaches have only been evaluated in a restricted setting. Their applicability in a preemptive setting appears problematic, since they may induce long memory blocking times depending on execution history. These blocking delays may induce significant jitter and consequently increase the tasks' response times. This work explores means to manage and, finally, bound these blocking delays. Three different schemes are explored and compared with regard to their analyzability, impact on response-time analysis, implementation complexity, and runtime behavior. Experiments show that the various approaches behave virtually identically at runtime. This allows to retain the approach combining low implementation complexity with analyzability.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computer systems organization → Real-time system architecture
  • Dynamic Time-Division Multiplexing
  • Predictable Computing
  • Multi-Criticality
  • Preemption


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