Distributed Quantum Proofs for Replicated Data

Authors Pierre Fraigniaud, François Le Gall, Harumichi Nishimura, Ami Paz

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Author Details

Pierre Fraigniaud
  • IRIF, CNRS and Université de Paris, France
François Le Gall
  • Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Japan
Harumichi Nishimura
  • Graduate School of Informatics, Nagoya University, Japan
Ami Paz
  • Faculty of Computer Science, Universität Wien, Austria


We thank the anonymous reviewer of ITCS 2021 who pointed [Bill Rosgen, 2008] to us, and Uri Meir for useful discussions.

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Pierre Fraigniaud, François Le Gall, Harumichi Nishimura, and Ami Paz. Distributed Quantum Proofs for Replicated Data. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 28:1-28:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


This paper tackles the issue of checking that all copies of a large data set replicated at several nodes of a network are identical. The fact that the replicas may be located at distant nodes prevents the system from verifying their equality locally, i.e., by having each node consult only nodes in its vicinity. On the other hand, it remains possible to assign certificates to the nodes, so that verifying the consistency of the replicas can be achieved locally. However, we show that, as the replicated data is large, classical certification mechanisms, including distributed Merlin-Arthur protocols, cannot guarantee good completeness and soundness simultaneously, unless they use very large certificates. The main result of this paper is a distributed quantum Merlin-Arthur protocol enabling the nodes to collectively check the consistency of the replicas, based on small certificates, and in a single round of message exchange between neighbors, with short messages. In particular, the certificate-size is logarithmic in the size of the data set, which gives an exponential advantage over classical certification mechanisms. We propose yet another usage of a fundamental quantum primitive, called the SWAP test, in order to show our main result.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Quantum communication complexity
  • Theory of computation → Distributed computing models
  • Quantum Computing
  • Distributed Network Computing
  • Algorithmic Aspects of Networks


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