A New Connection Between Node and Edge Depth Robust Graphs

Authors Jeremiah Blocki, Mike Cinkoske

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Author Details

Jeremiah Blocki
  • Department of Computer Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Mike Cinkoske
  • Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA

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Jeremiah Blocki and Mike Cinkoske. A New Connection Between Node and Edge Depth Robust Graphs. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 64:1-64:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Given a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G = (V,E), we say that G is (e,d)-depth-robust (resp. (e,d)-edge-depth-robust) if for any set S ⊂ V (resp. S ⊆ E) of at most |S| ≤ e nodes (resp. edges) the graph G-S contains a directed path of length d. While edge-depth-robust graphs are potentially easier to construct many applications in cryptography require node depth-robust graphs with small indegree. We create a graph reduction that transforms an (e, d)-edge-depth-robust graph with m edges into a (e/2,d)-depth-robust graph with O(m) nodes and constant indegree. One immediate consequence of this result is the first construction of a provably ((n log log n)/log n, n/{(log n)^{1 + log log n}})-depth-robust graph with constant indegree, where previous constructions for e = (n log log n)/log n had d = O(n^{1-ε}). Our reduction crucially relies on ST-Robust graphs, a new graph property we introduce which may be of independent interest. We say that a directed, acyclic graph with n inputs and n outputs is (k₁, k₂)-ST-Robust if we can remove any k₁ nodes and there exists a subgraph containing at least k₂ inputs and k₂ outputs such that each of the k₂ inputs is connected to all of the k₂ outputs. If the graph if (k₁,n-k₁)-ST-Robust for all k₁ ≤ n we say that the graph is maximally ST-robust. We show how to construct maximally ST-robust graphs with constant indegree and O(n) nodes. Given a family 𝕄 of ST-robust graphs and an arbitrary (e, d)-edge-depth-robust graph G we construct a new constant-indegree graph Reduce(G, 𝕄) by replacing each node in G with an ST-robust graph from 𝕄. We also show that ST-robust graphs can be used to construct (tight) proofs-of-space and (asymptotically) improved wide-block labeling functions.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Security and privacy → Mathematical foundations of cryptography
  • Theory of computation → Cryptographic primitives
  • Depth robust graphs
  • memory hard functions


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