Pseudorandom Strings from Pseudorandom Quantum States

Authors Prabhanjan Ananth , Yao-Ting Lin, Henry Yuen

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Author Details

Prabhanjan Ananth
  • Department of Computer Science, University of California Santa Barbara, CA, USA
Yao-Ting Lin
  • Department of Computer Science, University of California Santa Barbara, CA, USA
Henry Yuen
  • Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

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Prabhanjan Ananth, Yao-Ting Lin, and Henry Yuen. Pseudorandom Strings from Pseudorandom Quantum States. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


We study the relationship between notions of pseudorandomness in the quantum and classical worlds. Pseudorandom quantum state generator (PRSG), a pseudorandomness notion in the quantum world, is an efficient circuit that produces states that are computationally indistinguishable from Haar random states. PRSGs have found applications in quantum gravity, quantum machine learning, quantum complexity theory, and quantum cryptography. Pseudorandom generators, on the other hand, a pseudorandomness notion in the classical world, is ubiquitous to theoretical computer science. While some separation results were known between PRSGs, for some parameter regimes, and PRGs, their relationship has not been completely understood. In this work, we show that a natural variant of pseudorandom generators called quantum pseudorandom generators (QPRGs) can be based on the existence of logarithmic output length PRSGs. Our result along with the previous separations gives a better picture regarding the relationship between the two notions. We also study the relationship between other notions, namely, pseudorandom function-like state generators and pseudorandom functions. We provide evidence that QPRGs can be as useful as PRGs by providing cryptographic applications of QPRGs such as commitments and encryption schemes. Our primary technical contribution is a method for pseudodeterministically extracting uniformly random strings from Haar-random states.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Security and privacy → Mathematical foundations of cryptography
  • Theory of computation → Quantum computation theory
  • Quantum Cryptography


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