Indexing Graph Search Trees and Applications

Authors Sankardeep Chakraborty, Kunihiko Sadakane

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Sankardeep Chakraborty
  • RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, Japan
Kunihiko Sadakane
  • The University of Tokyo, Japan

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Sankardeep Chakraborty and Kunihiko Sadakane. Indexing Graph Search Trees and Applications. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 67:1-67:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


We consider the problem of compactly representing the Depth First Search (DFS) tree of a given undirected or directed graph having n vertices and m edges while supporting various DFS related queries efficiently in the RAM with logarithmic word size. We study this problem in two well-known models: indexing and encoding models. While most of these queries can be supported easily in constant time using O(n lg n) bits of extra space, our goal here is, more specifically, to beat this trivial O(n lg n) bit space bound, yet not compromise too much on the running time of these queries. In the indexing model, the space bound of our solution involves the quantity m, hence, we obtain different bounds for sparse and dense graphs respectively. In the encoding model, we first give a space lower bound, followed by an almost optimal data structure with extremely fast query time. Central to our algorithm is a partitioning of the DFS tree into connected subtrees, and a compact way to store these connections. Finally, we also apply these techniques to compactly index the shortest path structure, biconnectivity structures among others.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Mathematics of computing → Graph algorithms
  • Depth First Search Tree
  • Compact Data Structures
  • Encoding Schemes


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