Graph Realization of Distance Sets

Authors Amotz Bar-Noy, David Peleg, Mor Perry, Dror Rawitz

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Author Details

Amotz Bar-Noy
  • City University of New York (CUNY), NY, USA
David Peleg
  • Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Mor Perry
  • The Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo, Israel
Dror Rawitz
  • Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel

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Amotz Bar-Noy, David Peleg, Mor Perry, and Dror Rawitz. Graph Realization of Distance Sets. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 13:1-13:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


The Distance Realization problem is defined as follows. Given an n × n matrix D of nonnegative integers, interpreted as inter-vertex distances, find an n-vertex weighted or unweighted graph G realizing D, i.e., whose inter-vertex distances satisfy dist_G(i,j) = D_{i,j} for every 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n, or decide that no such realizing graph exists. The problem was studied for general weighted and unweighted graphs, as well as for cases where the realizing graph is restricted to a specific family of graphs (e.g., trees or bipartite graphs). An extension of Distance Realization that was studied in the past is where each entry in the matrix D may contain a range of consecutive permissible values. We refer to this extension as Range Distance Realization (or Range-DR). Restricting each range to at most k values yields the problem k-Range Distance Realization (or k-Range-DR). The current paper introduces a new extension of Distance Realization, in which each entry D_{i,j} of the matrix may contain an arbitrary set of acceptable values for the distance between i and j, for every 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. We refer to this extension as Set Distance Realization (Set-DR), and to the restricted problem where each entry may contain at most k values as k-Set Distance Realization (or k-Set-DR). We first show that 2-Range-DR is NP-hard for unweighted graphs (implying the same for 2-Set-DR). Next we prove that 2-Set-DR is NP-hard for unweighted and weighted trees. We then explore Set-DR where the realization is restricted to the families of stars, paths, or cycles. For the weighted case, our positive results are that for each of these families there exists a polynomial time algorithm for 2-Set-DR. On the hardness side, we prove that 6-Set-DR is NP-hard for stars and 5-Set-DR is NP-hard for paths and cycles. For the unweighted case, our results are the same, except for the case of unweighted stars, for which k-Set-DR is polynomially solvable for any k.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Mathematics of computing → Graph algorithms
  • Graph Realization
  • distance realization
  • network design


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