Towards Uniform Certification in QBF

Authors Leroy Chew , Friedrich Slivovsky

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Leroy Chew
  • TU Wien, Austria
Friedrich Slivovsky
  • TU Wien, Austria

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Leroy Chew and Friedrich Slivovsky. Towards Uniform Certification in QBF. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 22:1-22:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


We pioneer a new technique that allows us to prove a multitude of previously open simulations in QBF proof complexity. In particular, we show that extended QBF Frege p-simulates clausal proof systems such as IR-Calculus, IRM-Calculus, Long-Distance Q-Resolution, and Merge Resolution. These results are obtained by taking a technique of Beyersdorff et al. (JACM 2020) that turns strategy extraction into simulation and combining it with new local strategy extraction arguments. This approach leads to simulations that are carried out mainly in propositional logic, with minimal use of the QBF rules. Our proofs therefore provide a new, largely propositional interpretation of the simulated systems. We argue that these results strengthen the case for uniform certification in QBF solving, since many QBF proof systems now fall into place underneath extended QBF Frege.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Proof complexity
  • QBF
  • Proof Complexity
  • Verification
  • Frege
  • Extended Frege
  • Strategy Extraction


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