GSM+T: A Timed Artifact-Centric Process Model

Authors Julius Köpke , Johann Eder , Jianwen Su

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 4.44 MB
  • 15 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Julius Köpke
  • Alpen-Adria-Universität, Klagenfurt, Austria
Johann Eder
  • Alpen-Adria-Universität, Klagenfurt, Austria
Jianwen Su
  • Department of Computer Science, UC Santa Barbara, USA

Cite AsGet BibTex

Julius Köpke, Johann Eder, and Jianwen Su. GSM+T: A Timed Artifact-Centric Process Model. In 25th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 120, pp. 18:1-18:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


We introduce an extension to the declarative and artifact-centric Guard Stage Milestone (GSM) process modeling language to represent temporal aspects (duration, deadlines, lower- and upper-bound constraints), define the correctness of executions of GSM processes with respect to temporal constraints, check controllability of processes, compute execution plans respecting temporal constraints, and provide a translation method allowing to execute controllable GSM+T processes on standard GSM Engines.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Applied computing → Business process modeling
  • Guard Stage Milestone
  • GSM
  • Time Constraints
  • Controllability
  • Case Handling
  • Business Process Modeling


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. Serge Abiteboul, Omar Benjelloun, and Tova Milo. The active xml project: An overview. The VLDB Journal, 17(5):1019-1040, 2008. URL:
  2. Claudio Bettini, X Sean Wang, and Sushil Jajodia. Temporal reasoning in workflow systems. Distributed and Parallel Databases, 11(3):269-306, 2002. Google Scholar
  3. J. Cardoso, A. Sheth, J. Miller, J. Arnold, and K. Kochut. Quality of service for workflows and web service processes. J. of Web Semantics, 1(3):281-308, 2004. Google Scholar
  4. Saoussen Cheikhrouhou, Slim Kallel, Nawal Guermouche, and Mohamed Jmaiel. The temporal perspective in business process modeling: a survey and research challenges. Service Oriented Computing and Applications, 9(1):75-85, 2015. Google Scholar
  5. Margareta Ciglic. Time management in workflows with loops. In Proc. of OTM 2015 Workshops, pages 5-9, 2015. URL:
  6. Alessandro Cimatti, Luke Hunsberger, Andrea Micheli, Roberto Posenato, and Marco Roveri. Dynamic controllability via timed game automata. Acta Informatica, pages 1-42, 2016. Google Scholar
  7. C. Combi, M. Gozzi, R. Posenato, and G. Pozzi. Conceptual modeling of flexible temporal workflows. ACM TAAS, 7(2), 2012. URL:
  8. Carlo Combi and Roberto Posenato. Towards temporal controllabilities for workflow schemata. In Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME), 2010 17th International Symposium on, pages 129-136. IEEE, 2010. Google Scholar
  9. E. Damaggio, R. Hull, and R. Vaculin. On the equivalence of incremental and fixpoint semantics for business artifacts with Guard-Stage-Milestone lifecycles. Information Systems, 38:561-584, 2013. Google Scholar
  10. Rina Dechter, Itay Meiri, and Judea Pearl. Temporal constraint networks. Artificial intelligence, 49(1-3), 1991. Google Scholar
  11. Johann Eder, Euthimios Panagos, and Michael Rabinovich. Time constraints in workflow systems. In Advanced information systems engineering. Springer, 1999. Google Scholar
  12. Johann Eder, Euthimios Panagos, and Michael Rabinovich. Workflow time management revisited. In Seminal Contributions to Information Systems Engineering. Springer, 2013. Google Scholar
  13. Cagdas E. Gerede and Jianwen Su. Specification and verification of artifact behaviors in business process models. In Bernd J. Krämer, Kwei-Jay Lin, and Priya Narasimhan, editors, ICSOC 2007, pages 181-192. Springer, 2007. Google Scholar
  14. N. Guermouche and C. Godart. Timed model checking based approach for web services analysis. In ICWS 2009. IEEE, pages 213-221. IEEE, 2009. Google Scholar
  15. R. Hull, E. Damaggio, R. De Masellis, et al. Business artifacts with guard-stage-milestone lifecycles: managing artifact interactions with conditions and events. In Proc. of DEBS 2011, pages 51-62. ACM, 2011. Google Scholar
  16. Luke Hunsberger, Roberto Posenato, and Carlo Combi. A sound-and-complete propagation-based algorithm for checking the dynamic consistency of conditional simple temporal networks. In Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME). IEEE, 2015. Google Scholar
  17. Andreas Lanz, Roberto Posenato, Carlo Combi, and Manfred Reichert. Controllability of time-aware processes at run time. In On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2013 Conferences. Springer, 2013. Google Scholar
  18. Andreas Lanz, Manfred Reichert, and Barbara Weber. Process time patterns: A formal foundation. Information Systems, 57, 2016. Google Scholar
  19. O. Marjanovic and M.E. Orlowska. On modeling and verification of temporal constraints in production workflows. Knowledge &Inform. Syst., 1(2):157-192, 1999. Google Scholar
  20. W.M.P. van der Aalst, M.H. Schonenberg, and M. Song. Time prediction based on process mining. Information Systems, 36(2):450-475, 2011. Google Scholar
  21. T. Vidal and H. Fargier. Contingent durations in temporal csps: From consistency to controllabilities. In Proc. TIME '97. IEEE Computer Society, 1997. Google Scholar
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail