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Extending Fairness Expressibility of ECTL+: A Tree-Style One-Pass Tableau Approach

Authors Alexander Bolotov, Montserrat Hermo, Paqui Lucio

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Author Details

Alexander Bolotov
  • University of Westminster, W1W 6UW, London, UK
Montserrat Hermo
  • University of the Basque Country, P. Manuel de Lardizabal, 1, 20018-San Sebastián, Spain
Paqui Lucio
  • University of the Basque Country, P. Manuel de Lardizabal, 1, 20018-San Sebastián, Spain

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Alexander Bolotov, Montserrat Hermo, and Paqui Lucio. Extending Fairness Expressibility of ECTL+: A Tree-Style One-Pass Tableau Approach. In 25th International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning (TIME 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 120, pp. 5:1-5:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


Temporal logic has become essential for various areas in computer science, most notably for the specification and verification of hardware and software systems. For the specification purposes rich temporal languages are required that, in particular, can express fairness constraints. For linear-time logics which deal with fairness in the linear-time setting, one-pass and two-pass tableau methods have been developed. In the repository of the CTL-type branching-time setting, the well-known logics ECTL and ECTL^+ were developed to explicitly deal with fairness. However, due to the syntactical restrictions, these logics can only express restricted versions of fairness. The logic CTL^*, often considered as "the full branching-time logic" overcomes these restrictions on expressing fairness. However, this logic itself, is extremely challenging for the application of verification techniques, and the tableau technique, in particular. For example, there is no one-pass tableau construction for this logic, while it is known that one-pass tableau has an additional benefit enabling the formulation of dual sequent calculi that are often treated as more "natural" being more friendly for human understanding. Based on these two considerations, the following problem arises - are there logics that have richer expressiveness than ECTL^+ yet "simpler" than CTL^* for which a one-pass tableau can be developed? In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We present a tree-style one-pass tableau for a sub-logic of CTL^* that we call ECTL^#, which is more expressive than ECTL^+ allowing the formulation of a new range of fairness constraints with "until" operator. The presentation of the tableau construction is accompanied by an algorithm for constructing a systematic tableau, for any given input of admissible branching-time formulae. We prove the termination, soundness and completeness of the method. As tree-shaped one-pass tableaux are well suited for the automation and are amenable for the implementation and for the formulation of sequent calculi, our results also open a prospect of relevant developments of the automation and implementation of the tableau method for ECTL^#, and of a dual sequent calculi.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Modal and temporal logics
  • Temporal logic
  • fairness
  • tableau
  • branching-time
  • one-pass tableau


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