A Single Entangled System Is an Unbounded Source of Nonlocal Correlations and of Certified Random Numbers

Authors Florian J. Curchod, Markus Johansson, Remigiusz Augusiak, Matty J. Hoban, Peter Wittek, Antonio Acín

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Florian J. Curchod
Markus Johansson
Remigiusz Augusiak
Matty J. Hoban
Peter Wittek
Antonio Acín

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Florian J. Curchod, Markus Johansson, Remigiusz Augusiak, Matty J. Hoban, Peter Wittek, and Antonio Acín. A Single Entangled System Is an Unbounded Source of Nonlocal Correlations and of Certified Random Numbers. In 12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 73, pp. 1:1-1:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


The outcomes of local measurements made on entangled systems can be certified to be random provided that the generated statistics violate a Bell inequality. This way of producing randomness relies only on a minimal set of assumptions because it is independent of the internal functioning of the devices generating the random outcomes. In this context it is crucial to understand both qualitatively and quantitatively how the three fundamental quantities – entanglement, non-locality and randomness – relate to each other. To explore these relationships, we consider the case where repeated (non projective) measurements are made on the physical systems, each measurement being made on the post-measurement state of the previous measurement. In this work, we focus on the following questions: Given a single entangled system, how many nonlocal correlations in a sequence can we obtain? And from this single entangled system, how many certified random numbers is it possible to generate? In the standard scenario with a single measurement in the sequence, it is possible to generate non-local correlations between two distant observers only and the amount of random numbers is very limited. Here we show that we can overcome these limitations and obtain any amount of certified random numbers from a single entangled pair of qubit in a pure state by making sequences of measurements on it. Moreover, the state can be arbitrarily weakly entangled. In addition, this certification is achieved by near-maximal violation of a particular Bell inequality for each measurement in the sequence. We also present numerical results giving insight on the resistance to imperfections and on the importance of the strength of the measurements in our scheme.
  • Randomness certification
  • Nonlocality
  • Entanglement
  • Sequences of measurements


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