Classical Natural Deduction from Truth Tables

Authors Herman Geuvers , Tonny Hurkens

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Author Details

Herman Geuvers
  • Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Technical University Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Tonny Hurkens
  • Unaffiliated Researcher, Haps, The Netherlands


We want to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments.

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Herman Geuvers and Tonny Hurkens. Classical Natural Deduction from Truth Tables. In 28th International Conference on Types for Proofs and Programs (TYPES 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 269, pp. 2:1-2:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


In earlier articles we have introduced truth table natural deduction which allows one to extract natural deduction rules for a propositional logic connective from its truth table definition. This works for both intuitionistic logic and classical logic. We have studied the proof theory of the intuitionistic rules in detail, giving rise to a general Kripke semantics and general proof term calculus with reduction rules that are strongly normalizing. In the present paper we study the classical rules and give a term interpretation to classical deductions with reduction rules. As a variation we define a multi-conclusion variant of the natural deduction rules as it simplifies the study of proof term reduction. We show that the reduction is normalizing and gives rise to the sub-formula property. We also compare the logical strength of the classical rules with the intuitionistic ones and we show that if one non-monotone connective is classical, then all connectives become classical.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Proof theory
  • Theory of computation → Type theory
  • Theory of computation → Constructive mathematics
  • Theory of computation → Functional constructs
  • Natural deduction
  • classical proposition logic
  • multiple conclusion natural deduction
  • proof terms
  • formulas-as-types
  • proof normalization
  • subformula property
  • Curry-Howard isomorphism


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