A Bilevel Model for the Frequency Setting Problem

Authors Hector Gatt, Jean-Marie Freche, Arnaud Laurent, Fabien Lehuédé

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Author Details

Hector Gatt
  • IMT Atlantique, LS2N, Nantes. France
  • Lumiplan, Saint-Herblain, France
Jean-Marie Freche
  • Lumiplan, Saint-Herblain, France
Arnaud Laurent
  • IMT Atlantique, LS2N, Nantes, France
Fabien Lehuédé
  • IMT Atlantique, LS2N, Nantes, France


We thank the anonymous reviewers for their reading and comments.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Hector Gatt, Jean-Marie Freche, Arnaud Laurent, and Fabien Lehuédé. A Bilevel Model for the Frequency Setting Problem. In 22nd Symposium on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (ATMOS 2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 106, pp. 5:1-5:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Based on a partnership between IMT Atlantique and the French company Lumiplan, this work is part of a process of strengthening the Heurès software currently offered by Lumiplan to public transport operators to support their bus and driver scheduling operations. This work addresses the frequency setting problem which aims at defining the frequencies of the bus lines of a network for different time periods of a day. This operation complements a study on line planning with more accurate estimations of the demand, necessary bus types and passengers behaviors. In this paper, the operator’s exploitation costs are minimized while respecting service-levels constraints, based on the predictions of the path choice made by the passengers. The problem is solved by an easily implementable process and a case study based on a real network is presented to show the efficiency of our method.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Networks → Network design and planning algorithms
  • Frequency Setting
  • Service Performance
  • Bilevel
  • Passenger Assignment


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