History-Based Run-Time Requirement Enforcement of Non-Functional Properties on MPSoCs

Authors Khalil Esper, Jürgen Teich

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Khalil Esper
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany
Jürgen Teich
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany

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Khalil Esper and Jürgen Teich. History-Based Run-Time Requirement Enforcement of Non-Functional Properties on MPSoCs. In Fifth Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2024). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 117, pp. 4:1-4:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


Embedded system applications usually have requirements regarding non-functional properties of their execution like latency or power consumption. Enforcement of such requirements can be implemented by a reactive control loop, where an enforcer determines based on a system response (feedback) how to control the system, e.g., by selecting the number of active cores allocated to a program or by scaling their voltage/frequency mode. It is of a particular interest to design enforcement strategies for which it is possible to provide formal guarantees with respect to requirement violations, especially under a largely varying environmental input (workload) per execution. In this paper, we consider enforcement strategies that are modeled by a finite state machine (FSM) and the environment by a discrete-time Markov chain. Such a formalization enables the formal verification of temporal properties (verification goals) regarding the satisfaction of requirements of a given enforcement strategy. In this paper, we propose history-based enforcement FSMs which compute a reaction not just on the current, but on a fixed history of K previously observed system responses. We then analyze the quality of such enforcement FSMs in terms of the probability of satisfying a given set of verification goals and compare them to enforcement FSMs that react solely on the current system response. As experimental results, we present three use cases while considering requirements on latency and power consumption. The results show that history-based enforcement FSMs outperform enforcement FSMs that only consider the current system response regarding the probability of satisfying a given set of verification goals.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computer systems organization → Multicore architectures
  • Theory of computation → Linear logic
  • Theory of computation → Modal and temporal logics
  • Hardware → Finite state machines
  • Computer systems organization → Self-organizing autonomic computing
  • Theory of computation → Verification by model checking
  • Mathematics of computing → Probabilistic representations
  • Verification
  • Runtime Requirement Enforcement
  • History
  • Latency


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