Towards Representing Processes and Reasoning with Process Descriptions on the Web

Authors Andreas Harth , Tobias Käfer , Anisa Rula , Jean-Paul Calbimonte , Eduard Kamburjan , Martin Giese

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Author Details

Andreas Harth
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Nürnberg, Germany
Tobias Käfer
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany
Anisa Rula
  • University of Brescia, Italy
Jean-Paul Calbimonte
  • University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland HES-SO, Sierre, Switzerland
  • The Sense Innovation and Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
Eduard Kamburjan
  • University of Oslo, Norway
Martin Giese
  • University of Oslo, Norway


We acknowledge the constructive comments of the anonymous reviewers. Harth acknowledges discussions over the years with Victor Charpenay, Stefan Decker, Dieter Fensel, Justus Fries, Stefan Jablonski and Daniel Schraudner regarding the formalisation of processes. Harth and Käfer acknowledge discussions with Brian Logan and the participants of the Dagstuhl Seminar 23081 Agents on the Web.

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Andreas Harth, Tobias Käfer, Anisa Rula, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Eduard Kamburjan, and Martin Giese. Towards Representing Processes and Reasoning with Process Descriptions on the Web. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 1:1-1:32, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


We work towards a vocabulary to represent processes and temporal logic specifications as graph-structured data. Different fields use incompatible terminologies for describing essentially the same process-related concepts. In addition, processes can be represented from different perspectives and levels of abstraction: both state-centric and event-centric perspectives offer distinct insights into the underlying processes. In this work, we strive to unify the representation of processes and related concepts by leveraging the power of knowledge graphs. We survey approaches to representing processes and reasoning with process descriptions from different fields and provide a selection of scenarios to help inform the scope of a unified representation of processes. We focus on processes that can be executed and observed via web interfaces. We propose to provide a representation designed to combine state-centric and event-centric perspectives while incorporating temporal querying and reasoning capabilities on temporal logic specifications. A standardised vocabulary and representation for processes and temporal specifications would contribute towards bridging the gap between the terminologies from different fields and fostering the broader application of methods involving temporal logics, such as formal verification and program synthesis.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Information systems → Semantic web description languages
  • Theory of computation → Program semantics
  • Applied computing → Business process modeling
  • Applied computing → Event-driven architectures
  • Computing methodologies → Temporal reasoning
  • Computing methodologies → Ontology engineering
  • Process modelling
  • Process ontology
  • Temporal logic
  • Web services


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