Abstract
We consider the online carpool fairness problem of [Fagin and Williams, 1983] in which an online algorithm is presented with a sequence of pairs drawn from a group of n potential drivers. The online algorithm must select one driver from each pair, with the objective of partitioning the driving burden as fairly as possible for all drivers. The unfairness of an online algorithm is a measure of the worstcase deviation between the number of times a person has driven and the number of times they would have driven if life was completely fair.
We introduce a version of the problem in which drivers only carpool with their neighbors in a given social network graph; this is a generalization of the original problem, which corresponds to the social network of the complete graph. We show that for graphs of degree d, the unfairness of deterministic algorithms against adversarial sequences is exactly d/2. For random sequences of edges from planar graph social networks we give a [deterministic] algorithm with logarithmic unfairness (holds more generally for any boundedgenus graph). This does not follow from previous random sequence results in the original model, as we show that restricting the random sequences to sparse social network graphs may increase the unfairness.
A very natural class of randomized online algorithms are socalled static algorithms that preserve the same state distribution over time. Surprisingly, we show that any such algorithm has unfairness ~Theta(sqrt(d)) against oblivious adversaries. This shows that the local random greedy algorithm of [Ajtai et al, 1996] is close to optimal amongst the class of static algorithms. A natural (nonstatic) algorithm is global random greedy (which acts greedily and breaks ties at random). We improve the lower bound on the competitive ratio from Omega(log^{1/3}(d)) to Omega(log(d)). We also show that the competitive ratio of global random greedy against adaptive adversaries is Omega(d).
BibTeX  Entry
@InProceedings{fiat_et_al:LIPIcs:2016:6323,
author = {Amos Fiat and Anna R. Karlin and Elias Koutsoupias and Claire Mathieu and Rotem Zach},
title = {{Carpooling in Social Networks}},
booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
pages = {43:143:13},
series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN = {9783959770132},
ISSN = {18688969},
year = {2016},
volume = {55},
editor = {Ioannis Chatzigiannakis and Michael Mitzenmacher and Yuval Rabani and Davide Sangiorgi},
publisher = {Schloss DagstuhlLeibnizZentrum fuer Informatik},
address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL = {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2016/6323},
URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030drops63234},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.43},
annote = {Keywords: Online algorithms, Fairness, Randomized algorithms, Competitive ratio, Carpool problem}
}
Keywords: 

Online algorithms, Fairness, Randomized algorithms, Competitive ratio, Carpool problem 
Collection: 

43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016) 
Issue Date: 

2016 
Date of publication: 

23.08.2016 