Abstract
We study local symmetry breaking problems in the Congest model, focusing on ruling set problems, which generalize the fundamental Maximal Independent Set (MIS) problem. The time (round) complexity of MIS (and ruling sets) have attracted much attention in the Local model. Indeed, recent results (Barenboim et al., FOCS 2012, Ghaffari SODA 2016) for the MIS problem have tried to break the longstanding O(log n)round "barrier" achieved by Luby's algorithm, but these yield o(log n)round complexity only when the maximum degree Delta is somewhat small relative to n. More importantly, these results apply only in the Local model. In fact, the best known time bound in the Congest model is still O(log n) (via Luby's algorithm) even for moderately small Delta (i.e., for Delta = Omega(log n) and Delta = o(n)). Furthermore, message complexity has been largely ignored in the context of local symmetry breaking. Luby's algorithm takes O(m) messages on medge graphs and this is the best known bound with respect to messages. Our work is motivated by the following central question: can we break the Theta(log n) time complexity barrier and the Theta(m) message complexity barrier in the Congest model for MIS or closelyrelated symmetry breaking problems?
This paper presents progress towards this question for the distributed ruling set problem in the Congest model. A betaruling set is an independent set such that every node in the graph is at most beta hops from a node in the independent set. We present the following results:
 Time Complexity: We show that we can break the O(log n) "barrier" for 2 and 3ruling sets. We compute 3ruling sets in O(log n/log log n) rounds with high probability (whp). More generally we show that 2ruling sets can be computed in O(log Delta (log n)^(1/2 + epsilon) + log n/log log n) rounds for any epsilon > 0, which is o(log n) for a wide range of Delta values (e.g., Delta = 2^(log n)^(1/2epsilon)). These are the first 2 and 3ruling set algorithms to improve over the O(log n)round complexity of Luby's algorithm in the Congest model.
 Message Complexity: We show an Omega(n^2) lower bound on the message complexity of computing an MIS (i.e., 1ruling set) which holds also for randomized algorithms and present a contrast to this by showing a randomized algorithm for 2ruling sets that, whp, uses only O(n log^2 n) messages and runs in O(Delta log n) rounds. This is the first messageefficient algorithm known for ruling sets, which has message complexity nearly linear in n (which is optimal up to a polylogarithmic factor).
BibTeX  Entry
@InProceedings{pai_et_al:LIPIcs:2017:8013,
author = {Shreyas Pai and Gopal Pandurangan and Sriram V. Pemmaraju and Talal Riaz and Peter Robinson},
title = {{Symmetry Breaking in the Congest Model: Time and MessageEfficient Algorithms for Ruling Sets}},
booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)},
pages = {38:138:16},
series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN = {9783959770538},
ISSN = {18688969},
year = {2017},
volume = {91},
editor = {Andr{\'e}a W. Richa},
publisher = {Schloss DagstuhlLeibnizZentrum fuer Informatik},
address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL = {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2017/8013},
URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030drops80132},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.38},
annote = {Keywords: Congest model, Local model, Maximal independent set, Message complexity, Round complexity, Ruling sets, Symmetry breaking}
}
Keywords: 

Congest model, Local model, Maximal independent set, Message complexity, Round complexity, Ruling sets, Symmetry breaking 
Collection: 

31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017) 
Issue Date: 

2017 
Date of publication: 

12.10.2017 