License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC-BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.19
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88104
URL: https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2018/8810/
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Demaine, Erik D. ; Lockhart, Joshua ; Lynch, Jayson

The Computational Complexity of Portal and Other 3D Video Games

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LIPIcs-FUN-2018-19.pdf (3 MB)


Abstract

We classify the computational complexity of the popular video games Portal and Portal 2. We isolate individual mechanics of the game and prove NP-hardness, PSPACE-completeness, or pseudo-polynomiality depending on the specific game mechanics allowed. One of our proofs generalizes to prove NP-hardness of many other video games such as Half-Life 2, Halo, Doom, Elder Scrolls, Fallout, Grand Theft Auto, Left 4 Dead, Mass Effect, Deus Ex, Metal Gear Solid, and Resident Evil. These results build on the established literature on the complexity of video games [Aloupis et al., 2014][Cormode, 2004][Forisek, 2010][Viglietta, 2014].

BibTeX - Entry

@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs:2018:8810,
  author =	{Erik D. Demaine and Joshua Lockhart and Jayson Lynch},
  title =	{{The Computational Complexity of Portal and Other 3D Video Games}},
  booktitle =	{9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-067-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{100},
  editor =	{Hiro Ito and Stefano Leonardi and Linda Pagli and Giuseppe Prencipe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2018/8810},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88104},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: video games, hardness, motion planning, NP, PSPACE}
}

Keywords: video games, hardness, motion planning, NP, PSPACE
Collection: 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)
Issue Date: 2018
Date of publication: 04.06.2018


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