Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH scholarly article en Itsykson, Dmitry; Riazanov, Artur https://www.dagstuhl.de/lipics License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (CC BY 4.0)
when quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI:
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142773
URL:

;

Proof Complexity of Natural Formulas via Communication Arguments

pdf-format:


Abstract

A canonical communication problem Search(φ) is defined for every unsatisfiable CNF φ: an assignment to the variables of φ is partitioned among the communicating parties, they are to find a clause of φ falsified by this assignment. Lower bounds on the randomized k-party communication complexity of Search(φ) in the number-on-forehead (NOF) model imply tree-size lower bounds, rank lower bounds, and size-space tradeoffs for the formula φ in the semantic proof system T^{cc}(k,c) that operates with proof lines that can be computed by k-party randomized communication protocol using at most c bits of communication [Göös and Pitassi, 2014]. All known lower bounds on Search(φ) (e.g. [Beame et al., 2007; Göös and Pitassi, 2014; Russell Impagliazzo et al., 1994]) are realized on ad-hoc formulas φ (i.e. they were introduced specifically for these lower bounds). We introduce a new communication complexity approach that allows establishing proof complexity lower bounds for natural formulas.
First, we demonstrate our approach for two-party communication and apply it to the proof system Res(⊕) that operates with disjunctions of linear equalities over 𝔽₂ [Dmitry Itsykson and Dmitry Sokolov, 2014]. Let a formula PM_G encode that a graph G has a perfect matching. If G has an odd number of vertices, then PM_G has a tree-like Res(⊕)-refutation of a polynomial-size [Dmitry Itsykson and Dmitry Sokolov, 2014]. It was unknown whether this is the case for graphs with an even number of vertices. Using our approach we resolve this question and show a lower bound 2^{Ω(n)} on size of tree-like Res(⊕)-refutations of PM_{K_{n+2,n}}.
Then we apply our approach for k-party communication complexity in the NOF model and obtain a Ω(1/k 2^{n/2k - 3k/2}) lower bound on the randomized k-party communication complexity of Search(BPHP^{M}_{2ⁿ}) w.r.t. to some natural partition of the variables, where BPHP^{M}_{2ⁿ} is the bit pigeonhole principle and M = 2ⁿ+2^{n(1-1/k)}. In particular, our result implies that the bit pigeonhole requires exponential tree-like Th(k) proofs, where Th(k) is the semantic proof system operating with polynomial inequalities of degree at most k and k = 𝒪(log^{1-ε} n) for some ε > 0. We also show that BPHP^{2ⁿ+1}_{2ⁿ} superpolynomially separates tree-like Th(log^{1-ε} m) from tree-like Th(log m), where m is the number of variables in the refuted formula.

BibTeX - Entry

@InProceedings{itsykson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.3,
  author =	{Itsykson, Dmitry and Riazanov, Artur},
  title =	{{Proof Complexity of Natural Formulas via Communication Arguments}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:34},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2021/14277},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142773},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: bit pigeonhole principle, disjointness, multiparty communication complexity, perfect matching, proof complexity, randomized communication complexity, Resolution over linear equations, tree-like proofs}
}

Keywords: bit pigeonhole principle, disjointness, multiparty communication complexity, perfect matching, proof complexity, randomized communication complexity, Resolution over linear equations, tree-like proofs
Seminar: 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)
Issue date: 2021
Date of publication: 08.07.2021


DROPS-Home | Fulltext Search | Imprint | Privacy Published by LZI