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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

Computing a shortest path between two nodes in an undirected unweighted graph is among the most basic algorithmic tasks. Breadth first search solves this problem in linear time, which is clearly also a lower bound in the worst case. However, several works have shown how to solve this problem in sublinear time in expectation when the input graph is drawn from one of several classes of random graphs. In this work, we extend these results by giving sublinear time shortest path (and short path) algorithms for expander graphs. We thus identify a natural deterministic property of a graph (that is satisfied by typical random regular graphs) which suffices for sublinear time shortest paths. The algorithms are very simple, involving only bidirectional breadth first search and short random walks. We also complement our new algorithms by near-matching lower bounds.

Noga Alon, Allan Grønlund, Søren Fuglede Jørgensen, and Kasper Green Larsen. Sublinear Time Shortest Path in Expander Graphs. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.8, author = {Alon, Noga and Gr{\o}nlund, Allan and J{\o}rgensen, S{\o}ren Fuglede and Larsen, Kasper Green}, title = {{Sublinear Time Shortest Path in Expander Graphs}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {8:1--8:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-205646}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.8}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest Path, Expanders, Breadth First Search, Graph Algorithms} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We provide efficient approximation algorithms for the Necklace Splitting problem. The input consists of a sequence of beads of n types and an integer k. The objective is to split the necklace, with a small number of cuts made between consecutive beads, and distribute the resulting intervals into k collections so that the discrepancy between the shares of any two collections, according to each type, is at most 1. We also consider an approximate version where each collection should contain at least a (1-ε)/k and at most a (1+ε)/k fraction of the beads of each type. It is known that there is always a solution making at most n(k-1) cuts, and this number of cuts is optimal in general. The proof is topological and provides no efficient procedure for finding these cuts. It is also known that for k = 2, and some fixed positive ε, finding a solution with n cuts is PPAD-hard.
We describe an efficient algorithm that produces an ε-approximate solution for k = 2 making n (2+log (1/ε)) cuts. This is an exponential improvement of a (1/ε)^O(n) bound of Bhatt and Leighton from the 80s. We also present an online algorithm for the problem (in its natural online model), in which the number of cuts made to produce discrepancy at most 1 on each type is Õ(m^{2/3} n), where m is the maximum number of beads of any type. Lastly, we establish a lower bound showing that for the online setup this is tight up to logarithmic factors. Similar results are obtained for k > 2.

Noga Alon and Andrei Graur. Efficient Splitting of Necklaces. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 14:1-14:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.14, author = {Alon, Noga and Graur, Andrei}, title = {{Efficient Splitting of Necklaces}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {14:1--14:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140832}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.14}, annote = {Keywords: necklace splitting, necklace halving, approximation algorithms, online algorithms, discrepancy} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

A recent palette sparsification theorem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [SODA'19] states that in every n-vertex graph G with maximum degree Δ, sampling O(log n) colors per each vertex independently from Δ+1 colors almost certainly allows for proper coloring of G from the sampled colors. Besides being a combinatorial statement of its own independent interest, this theorem was shown to have various applications to design of algorithms for (Δ+1) coloring in different models of computation on massive graphs such as streaming or sublinear-time algorithms.
In this paper, we focus on palette sparsification beyond (Δ+1) coloring, in both regimes when the number of available colors is much larger than (Δ+1), and when it is much smaller. In particular,
- We prove that for (1+ε) Δ coloring, sampling only O_ε(√{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper coloring from the sampled colors - this shows a separation between (1+ε) Δ and (Δ+1) coloring in the context of palette sparsification.
- A natural family of graphs with chromatic number much smaller than (Δ+1) are triangle-free graphs which are O(Δ/ln Δ) colorable. We prove a palette sparsification theorem tailored to these graphs: Sampling O(Δ^γ + √{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper O_γ(Δ/ln Δ) coloring of triangle-free graphs.
- We also consider the "local version" of graph coloring where every vertex v can only be colored from a list of colors with size proportional to the degree deg(v) of v. We show that sampling O_ε(log n) colors per vertex is sufficient for proper coloring of any graph with high probability whenever each vertex is sampling from a list of (1+ε) ⋅ deg(v) arbitrary colors, or even only deg(v)+1 colors when the lists are the sets {1,…,deg(v)+1}.
Our new palette sparsification results naturally lead to a host of new and/or improved algorithms for vertex coloring in different models including streaming and sublinear-time algorithms.

Noga Alon and Sepehr Assadi. Palette Sparsification Beyond (Δ+1) Vertex Coloring. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6, author = {Alon, Noga and Assadi, Sepehr}, title = {{Palette Sparsification Beyond (\Delta+1) Vertex Coloring}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126096}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: Graph coloring, palette sparsification, sublinear algorithms, list-coloring} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

We study a natural generalization of the classical ε-net problem (Haussler - Welzl 1987), which we call the ε-t-net problem: Given a hypergraph on n vertices and parameters t and ε ≥ t/n, find a minimum-sized family S of t-element subsets of vertices such that each hyperedge of size at least ε n contains a set in S. When t=1, this corresponds to the ε-net problem.
We prove that any sufficiently large hypergraph with VC-dimension d admits an ε-t-net of size O((1+log t)d/ε log 1/ε). For some families of geometrically-defined hypergraphs (such as the dual hypergraph of regions with linear union complexity), we prove the existence of O(1/ε)-sized ε-t-nets.
We also present an explicit construction of ε-t-nets (including ε-nets) for hypergraphs with bounded VC-dimension. In comparison to previous constructions for the special case of ε-nets (i.e., for t=1), it does not rely on advanced derandomization techniques. To this end we introduce a variant of the notion of VC-dimension which is of independent interest.

Noga Alon, Bruno Jartoux, Chaya Keller, Shakhar Smorodinsky, and Yelena Yuditsky. The ε-t-Net Problem. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 5:1-5:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.5, author = {Alon, Noga and Jartoux, Bruno and Keller, Chaya and Smorodinsky, Shakhar and Yuditsky, Yelena}, title = {{The \epsilon-t-Net Problem}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {5:1--5:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121639}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.5}, annote = {Keywords: epsilon-nets, geometric hypergraphs, VC-dimension, linear union complexity} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

In this work we derandomize two central results in graph algorithms, replacement paths and distance sensitivity oracles (DSOs) matching in both cases the running time of the randomized algorithms.
For the replacement paths problem, let G = (V,E) be a directed unweighted graph with n vertices and m edges and let P be a shortest path from s to t in G. The replacement paths problem is to find for every edge e in P the shortest path from s to t avoiding e. Roditty and Zwick [ICALP 2005] obtained a randomized algorithm with running time of O~(m sqrt{n}). Here we provide the first deterministic algorithm for this problem, with the same O~(m sqrt{n}) time. Due to matching conditional lower bounds of Williams et al. [FOCS 2010], our deterministic combinatorial algorithm for the replacement paths problem is optimal up to polylogarithmic factors (unless the long standing bound of O~(mn) for the combinatorial boolean matrix multiplication can be improved). This also implies a deterministic algorithm for the second simple shortest path problem in O~(m sqrt{n}) time, and a deterministic algorithm for the k-simple shortest paths problem in O~(k m sqrt{n}) time (for any integer constant k > 0).
For the problem of distance sensitivity oracles, let G = (V,E) be a directed graph with real-edge weights. An f-Sensitivity Distance Oracle (f-DSO) gets as input the graph G=(V,E) and a parameter f, preprocesses it into a data-structure, such that given a query (s,t,F) with s,t in V and F subseteq E cup V, |F| <=f being a set of at most f edges or vertices (failures), the query algorithm efficiently computes the distance from s to t in the graph G \ F (i.e., the distance from s to t in the graph G after removing from it the failing edges and vertices F).
For weighted graphs with real edge weights, Weimann and Yuster [FOCS 2010] presented several randomized f-DSOs. In particular, they presented a combinatorial f-DSO with O~(mn^{4-alpha}) preprocessing time and subquadratic O~(n^{2-2(1-alpha)/f}) query time, giving a tradeoff between preprocessing and query time for every value of 0 < alpha < 1. We derandomize this result and present a combinatorial deterministic f-DSO with the same asymptotic preprocessing and query time.

Noga Alon, Shiri Chechik, and Sarel Cohen. Deterministic Combinatorial Replacement Paths and Distance Sensitivity Oracles. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 12:1-12:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.12, author = {Alon, Noga and Chechik, Shiri and Cohen, Sarel}, title = {{Deterministic Combinatorial Replacement Paths and Distance Sensitivity Oracles}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {12:1--12:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105882}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.12}, annote = {Keywords: replacement paths, distance sensitivity oracles, derandomization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

We prove a lower bound of Omega(n^2/log^2 n) on the size of any syntactically multilinear arithmetic circuit computing some explicit multilinear polynomial f(x_1, ..., x_n). Our approach expands and improves upon a result of Raz, Shpilka and Yehudayoff ([Ran Raz et al., 2008]), who proved a lower bound of Omega(n^{4/3}/log^2 n) for the same polynomial. Our improvement follows from an asymptotically optimal lower bound for a generalized version of Galvin's problem in extremal set theory.

Noga Alon, Mrinal Kumar, and Ben Lee Volk. Unbalancing Sets and an Almost Quadratic Lower Bound for Syntactically Multilinear Arithmetic Circuits. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.11, author = {Alon, Noga and Kumar, Mrinal and Volk, Ben Lee}, title = {{Unbalancing Sets and an Almost Quadratic Lower Bound for Syntactically Multilinear Arithmetic Circuits}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {11:1--11:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88799}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.11}, annote = {Keywords: Algebraic Complexity, Multilinear Circuits, Circuit Lower Bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

The authors and Fischer recently proved that any hereditary property of two-dimensional matrices (where the row and column order is not ignored) over a finite alphabet is testable with a constant number of queries, by establishing an (ordered) matrix removal lemma, which states the following: If a matrix is far from satisfying some hereditary property, then a large enough constant-size random submatrix of it does not satisfy the property with probability at least 9/10. Here being far from the property means that one needs to modify a constant fraction of the entries of the matrix to make it satisfy the property.
However, in the above general removal lemma, the required size of the random submatrix grows very fast as a function of the distance of the matrix from satisfying the property. In this work we establish much more efficient removal lemmas for several special cases of the above problem. In particular, we show the following: If an epsilon-fraction of the entries of a binary matrix M can be covered by pairwise-disjoint copies of some (s x t) matrix A, then a delta-fraction of the (s x t)-submatrices of M are equal to A, where delta is polynomial in epsilon.
We generalize the work of Alon, Fischer and Newman [SICOMP'07] and make progress towards proving one of their conjectures. The proofs combine their efficient conditional regularity lemma for matrices with additional combinatorial and probabilistic ideas.

Noga Alon and Omri Ben-Eliezer. Efficient Removal Lemmas for Matrices. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 25:1-25:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.25, author = {Alon, Noga and Ben-Eliezer, Omri}, title = {{Efficient Removal Lemmas for Matrices}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {25:1--25:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75744}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.25}, annote = {Keywords: Property Testing, Removal Lemma, Matrix Regularity Lemma, Binary Matrix} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

Given a matrix A, we study how many epsilon-cubes are required to cover the convex hull of the columns of A. We show bounds on this cover number in terms of VC dimension and the gamma_2 norm and give algorithms for enumerating elements of a cover. This leads to algorithms for computing approximate Nash equilibria that unify and extend several previous results in the literature. Moreover, our approximation algorithms can be applied quite generally to a family of quadratic optimization problems that also includes finding the k-by-k combinatorial rectangle of a matrix. In particular, for this problem we give the first quasi-polynomial time additive approximation algorithm that works for any matrix A in [0,1]^{m x n}.

Noga Alon, Troy Lee, and Adi Shraibman. The Cover Number of a Matrix and its Algorithmic Applications. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 34-47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.34, author = {Alon, Noga and Lee, Troy and Shraibman, Adi}, title = {{The Cover Number of a Matrix and its Algorithmic Applications}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {34--47}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-46865}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.34}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, Approximate Nash equilibria, Cover number, VC dimension} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9421, Algebraic Methods in Computational Complexity (2010)

The Nearest Codeword Problem (NCP) is a basic algorithmic question in the theory of error-correcting codes. Given a point v in F_2^n and a linear space L in F_2^n of dimension k NCP asks to find a point l in L that minimizes the (Hamming) distance from v.
It is well-known that the nearest codeword problem is NP-hard. Therefore approximation algorithms are of interest. The best effcient approximation algorithms for the NCP to date are due to Berman and Karpinski. They are a
deterministic algorithm that achieves an approximation ratio of O(k/c)
for an arbitrary constant c; and a randomized algorithm that achieves
an approximation ratio of O(k/ log n).
In this paper we present new deterministic algorithms for approximating
the NCP that improve substantially upon the earlier work, (almost) de-randomizing the randomized algorithm of Berman and Karpinski.
We also initiate a study of the following Remote Point Problem (RPP). Given a linear space L in F_2^n of dimension k RPP asks to find a point v in F_2^n that is far from L. We say that an algorithm achieves a remoteness of r for the RPP if it always outputs a point v that is at least r-far from L. In this paper we present a deterministic polynomial time algorithm that achieves a remoteness of Omega(n log k / k) for all k < n/2.
We motivate the remote point problem by relating it to both the nearest codeword problem and the matrix rigidity approach to circuit lower bounds in
computational complexity theory.

Noga Alon, Rina Panigrahy, and Sergey Yekhanin. Deterministic approximation algorithms for the nearest codeword problem. In Algebraic Methods in Computational Complexity. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9421, pp. 1-13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:DagSemProc.09421.4, author = {Alon, Noga and Panigrahy, Rina and Yekhanin, Sergey}, title = {{Deterministic approximation algorithms for the nearest codeword problem}}, booktitle = {Algebraic Methods in Computational Complexity}, pages = {1--13}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2010}, volume = {9421}, editor = {Manindra Agrawal and Lance Fortnow and Thomas Thierauf and Christopher Umans}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.09421.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24133}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.09421.4}, annote = {Keywords: } }

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