Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

In the classical linear degeneracy testing problem, we are given n real numbers and a k-variate linear polynomial F, for some constant k, and have to determine whether there exist k numbers a_1,…,a_k from the set such that F(a_1,…,a_k) = 0. We consider a generalization of this problem in which F is an arbitrary constant-degree polynomial, we are given k sets of n real numbers, and have to determine whether there exists a k-tuple of numbers, one in each set, on which F vanishes. We give the first improvement over the naïve O^*(n^{k-1}) algorithm for this problem (where the O^*(⋅) notation omits subpolynomial factors).
We show that the problem can be solved in time O^*(n^{k - 2 + 4/(k+2)}) for even k and in time O^*(n^{k - 2 + (4k-8)/(k²-5)}) for odd k in the real RAM model of computation. We also prove that for k = 4, the problem can be solved in time O^*(n^2.625) in the algebraic decision tree model, and for k = 5 it can be solved in time O^*(n^3.56) in the same model, both improving on the above uniform bounds.
All our results rely on an algebraic generalization of the standard meet-in-the-middle algorithm for k-SUM, powered by recent algorithmic advances in the polynomial method for semi-algebraic range searching. In fact, our main technical result is much more broadly applicable, as it provides a general tool for detecting incidences and other interactions between points and algebraic surfaces in any dimension. In particular, it yields an efficient algorithm for a general, algebraic version of Hopcroft’s point-line incidence detection problem in any dimension.

Jean Cardinal and Micha Sharir. Improved Algebraic Degeneracy Testing. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 22:1-22:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.22, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Improved Algebraic Degeneracy Testing}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {22:1--22:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178723}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.22}, annote = {Keywords: Degeneracy testing, k-SUM problem, incidence bounds, Hocroft’s problem, polynomial method, algebraic decision trees} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

We present subquadratic algorithms in the algebraic decision-tree model for several 3Sum-hard geometric problems, all of which can be reduced to the following question: Given two sets A, B, each consisting of n pairwise disjoint segments in the plane, and a set C of n triangles in the plane, we want to count, for each triangle Δ ∈ C, the number of intersection points between the segments of A and those of B that lie in Δ. The problems considered in this paper have been studied by Chan (2020), who gave algorithms that solve them, in the standard real-RAM model, in O((n²/log²n) log^O(1) log n) time. We present solutions in the algebraic decision-tree model whose cost is O(n^{60/31+ε}), for any ε > 0.
Our approach is based on a primal-dual range searching mechanism, which exploits the multi-level polynomial partitioning machinery recently developed by Agarwal, Aronov, Ezra, and Zahl (2020).
A key step in the procedure is a variant of point location in arrangements, say of lines in the plane, which is based solely on the order type of the lines, a "handicap" that turns out to be beneficial for speeding up our algorithm.

Boris Aronov, Mark de Berg, Jean Cardinal, Esther Ezra, John Iacono, and Micha Sharir. Subquadratic Algorithms for Some 3Sum-Hard Geometric Problems in the Algebraic Decision Tree Model. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 3:1-3:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{aronov_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.3, author = {Aronov, Boris and de Berg, Mark and Cardinal, Jean and Ezra, Esther and Iacono, John and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Subquadratic Algorithms for Some 3Sum-Hard Geometric Problems in the Algebraic Decision Tree Model}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {3:1--3:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154363}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.3}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, Algebraic decision-tree model, Polynomial partitioning, Primal-dual range searching, Order types, Point location, Hierarchical partitions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

Afshani, Barbay and Chan (2017) introduced the notion of instance-optimal algorithm in the order-oblivious setting. An algorithm A is instance-optimal in the order-oblivious setting for a certain class of algorithms 𝒜 if the following hold:
- A takes as input a sequence of objects from some domain;
- for any instance σ and any algorithm A' ∈ 𝒜, the runtime of A on σ is at most a constant factor removed from the runtime of A' on the worst possible permutation of σ. If we identify permutations of a sequence as representing the same instance, this essentially states that A is optimal on every possible input (and not only in the worst case).
We design instance-optimal algorithms for the problem of reporting, given a bichromatic set of points in the plane S, all pairs consisting of points of different color which span an empty axis-aligned rectangle (or reporting all points which appear in such a pair). This problem has applications for training-set reduction in nearest-neighbour classifiers. It is also related to the problem consisting of finding the decision boundaries of a euclidean nearest-neighbour classifier, for which Bremner et al. (2005) gave an optimal output-sensitive algorithm.
By showing the existence of an instance-optimal algorithm in the order-oblivious setting for this problem we push the methods of Afshani et al. closer to their limits by adapting and extending them to a setting which exhibits highly non-local features. Previous problems for which instance-optimal algorithms were proven to exist were based solely on local relationships between points in a set.

Jean Cardinal, Justin Dallant, and John Iacono. An Instance-Optimal Algorithm for Bichromatic Rectangular Visibility. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 24:1-24:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.24, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Dallant, Justin and Iacono, John}, title = {{An Instance-Optimal Algorithm for Bichromatic Rectangular Visibility}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {24:1--24:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146057}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.24}, annote = {Keywords: computational geometry, instance-optimality, colored point sets, empty rectangles, visibility} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We consider the problem of maintaining an approximate maximum independent set of geometric objects under insertions and deletions. We present a data structure that maintains a constant-factor approximate maximum independent set for broad classes of fat objects in d dimensions, where d is assumed to be a constant, in sublinear worst-case update time. This gives the first results for dynamic independent set in a wide variety of geometric settings, such as disks, fat polygons, and their high-dimensional equivalents. For axis-aligned squares and hypercubes, our result improves upon all (recently announced) previous works. We obtain, in particular, a dynamic (4+ε)-approximation for squares, with O(log⁴ n) worst-case update time.
Our result is obtained via a two-level approach. First, we develop a dynamic data structure which stores all objects and provides an approximate independent set when queried, with output-sensitive running time. We show that via standard methods such a structure can be used to obtain a dynamic algorithm with amortized update time bounds. Then, to obtain worst-case update time algorithms, we develop a generic deamortization scheme that with each insertion/deletion keeps (i) the update time bounded and (ii) the number of changes in the independent set constant. We show that such a scheme is applicable to fat objects by showing an appropriate generalization of a separator theorem.
Interestingly, we show that our deamortization scheme is also necessary in order to obtain worst-case update bounds: If for a class of objects our scheme is not applicable, then no constant-factor approximation with sublinear worst-case update time is possible. We show that such a lower bound applies even for seemingly simple classes of geometric objects including axis-aligned rectangles in the plane.

Jean Cardinal, John Iacono, and Grigorios Koumoutsos. Worst-Case Efficient Dynamic Geometric Independent Set. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 25:1-25:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.25, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Iacono, John and Koumoutsos, Grigorios}, title = {{Worst-Case Efficient Dynamic Geometric Independent Set}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {25:1--25:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146061}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.25}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum independent set, deamortization, approximation} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We prove that some exact geometric pattern matching problems reduce in linear time to o k-SUM when the pattern has a fixed size k. This holds in the real RAM model for searching for a similar copy of a set of k ≥ 3 points within a set of n points in the plane, and for searching for an affine image of a set of k ≥ d+2 points within a set of n points in d-space.
As corollaries, we obtain improved real RAM algorithms and decision trees for the two problems. In particular, they can be solved by algebraic decision trees of near-linear height.

Boris Aronov and Jean Cardinal. Geometric Pattern Matching Reduces to k-SUM. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 32:1-32:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{aronov_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.32, author = {Aronov, Boris and Cardinal, Jean}, title = {{Geometric Pattern Matching Reduces to k-SUM}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {32:1--32:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133760}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.32}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric pattern matching, k-SUM problem, Linear decision trees} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 162, 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)

The sparse regression problem, also known as best subset selection problem, can be cast as follows: Given a set S of n points in ℝ^d, a point y∈ ℝ^d, and an integer 2 ≤ k ≤ d, find an affine combination of at most k points of S that is nearest to y. We describe a O(n^{k-1} log^{d-k+2} n)-time randomized (1+ε)-approximation algorithm for this problem with d and ε constant. This is the first algorithm for this problem running in time o(n^k). Its running time is similar to the query time of a data structure recently proposed by Har-Peled, Indyk, and Mahabadi (ICALP'18), while not requiring any preprocessing. Up to polylogarithmic factors, it matches a conditional lower bound relying on a conjecture about affine degeneracy testing. In the special case where k = d = O(1), we provide a simple O_δ(n^{d-1+δ})-time deterministic exact algorithm, for any δ > 0. Finally, we show how to adapt the approximation algorithm for the sparse linear regression and sparse convex regression problems with the same running time, up to polylogarithmic factors.

Jean Cardinal and Aurélien Ooms. Sparse Regression via Range Counting. In 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 162, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.20, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Ooms, Aur\'{e}lien}, title = {{Sparse Regression via Range Counting}}, booktitle = {17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)}, pages = {20:1--20:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-150-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {162}, editor = {Albers, Susanne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122677}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.20}, annote = {Keywords: Sparse Linear Regression, Orthogonal Range Searching, Affine Degeneracy Testing, Nearest Neighbors, Hyperplane Arrangements} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

For many algorithms dealing with sets of points in the plane, the only relevant information carried by the input is the combinatorial configuration of the points: the orientation of each triple of points in the set (clockwise, counterclockwise, or collinear). This information is called the order type of the point set. In the dual, realizable order types and abstract order types are combinatorial analogues of line arrangements and pseudoline arrangements. Too often in the literature we analyze algorithms in the real-RAM model for simplicity, putting aside the fact that computers as we know them cannot handle arbitrary real numbers without some sort of encoding. Encoding an order type by the integer coordinates of a realizing point set is known to yield doubly exponential coordinates in some cases. Other known encodings can achieve quadratic space or fast orientation queries, but not both. In this contribution, we give a compact encoding for abstract order types that allows efficient query of the orientation of any triple: the encoding uses O(n^2) bits and an orientation query takes O(log n) time in the word-RAM model with word size w >= log n. This encoding is space-optimal for abstract order types. We show how to shorten the encoding to O(n^2 {(log log n)}^2 / log n) bits for realizable order types, giving the first subquadratic encoding for those order types with fast orientation queries. We further refine our encoding to attain O(log n/log log n) query time at the expense of a negligibly larger space requirement. In the realizable case, we show that all those encodings can be computed efficiently. Finally, we generalize our results to the encoding of point configurations in higher dimension.

Jean Cardinal, Timothy M. Chan, John Iacono, Stefan Langerman, and Aurélien Ooms. Subquadratic Encodings for Point Configurations. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 20:1-20:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.20, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Chan, Timothy M. and Iacono, John and Langerman, Stefan and Ooms, Aur\'{e}lien}, title = {{Subquadratic Encodings for Point Configurations}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {20:1--20:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87337}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.20}, annote = {Keywords: point configuration, order type, chirotope, succinct data structure} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

We investigate parameterizing hard combinatorial problems by the size of the solution set compared to all solution candidates. Our main result is a uniform sampling algorithm for satisfying assignments of 2-CNF formulas that runs in expected time O^*(eps^{-0.617}) where eps is the fraction of assignments that are satisfying. This improves significantly over the trivial sampling bound of expected Theta^*(eps^{-1}), and on all previous algorithms whenever eps = Omega(0.708^n). We also consider algorithms for 3-SAT with an eps fraction of satisfying assignments, and prove that it can be solved in O^*(eps^{-2.27}) deterministic time, and in O^*(eps^{-0.936}) randomized time. Finally, to further demonstrate the applicability of this framework, we also explore how similar techniques can be used for vertex cover problems.

Jean Cardinal, Jerri Nummenpalo, and Emo Welzl. Solving and Sampling with Many Solutions: Satisfiability and Other Hard Problems. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, pp. 11:1-11:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.11, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Nummenpalo, Jerri and Welzl, Emo}, title = {{Solving and Sampling with Many Solutions: Satisfiability and Other Hard Problems}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, pages = {11:1--11:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85459}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.11}, annote = {Keywords: Satisfiability, Sampling, Parameterized complexity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

The 3SUM problem asks if an input n-set of real numbers contains a triple whose sum is zero. We consider the 3POL problem, a natural generalization of 3SUM where we replace the sum function by a constant-degree polynomial in three variables. The motivations are threefold. Raz, Sharir, and de Zeeuw gave an O(n^{11/6}) upper bound on the number of solutions of trivariate polynomial equations when the solutions are taken from the cartesian product of three n-sets of real numbers. We give algorithms for the corresponding problem of counting such solutions. Grønlund and Pettie recently designed subquadratic algorithms for 3SUM. We generalize their results to 3POL. Finally, we shed light on the General Position Testing (GPT) problem: "Given n points in the plane, do three of them lie on a line?", a key problem in computational geometry.
We prove that there exist bounded-degree algebraic decision trees of depth O(n^{12/7+e}) that solve 3POL, and that 3POL can be solved in O(n^2 (log log n)^{3/2} / (log n)^{1/2}) time in the real-RAM model. Among the possible applications of those results, we show how to solve GPT in subquadratic time when the input points lie on o((log n)^{1/6}/(log log n)^{1/2}) constant-degree polynomial curves. This constitutes the first step towards closing the major open question of whether GPT can be solved in subquadratic time. To obtain these results, we generalize important tools - such as batch range searching and dominance reporting - to a polynomial setting. We expect these new tools to be useful in other applications.

Luis Barba, Jean Cardinal, John Iacono, Stefan Langerman, Aurélien Ooms, and Noam Solomon. Subquadratic Algorithms for Algebraic Generalizations of 3SUM. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{barba_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.13, author = {Barba, Luis and Cardinal, Jean and Iacono, John and Langerman, Stefan and Ooms, Aur\'{e}lien and Solomon, Noam}, title = {{Subquadratic Algorithms for Algebraic Generalizations of 3SUM}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {13:1--13:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72214}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.13}, annote = {Keywords: 3SUM, subquadratic algorithms, general position testing, range searching, dominance reporting, polynomial curves} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

The k-SUM problem is given n input real numbers to determine whether any k of them sum to zero. The problem is of tremendous importance in the emerging field of complexity theory within P, and it is in particular open whether it admits an algorithm of complexity O(n^c) with c<d where d is the ceiling of k/2. Inspired by an algorithm due to Meiser (1993), we show that there exist linear decision trees and algebraic computation trees of depth O(n^3 log^2 n) solving k-SUM. Furthermore, we show that there exists a randomized algorithm that runs in ~O(n^{d+8}) time, and performs O(n^3 log^2 n) linear queries on the input. Thus, we show that it is possible to have an algorithm with a runtime almost identical (up to the +8) to the best known algorithm but for the first time also with the number of queries on the input a polynomial that is independent of k. The O(n^3 log^2 n) bound on the number of linear queries is also a tighter bound than any known algorithm solving k-SUM, even allowing unlimited total time outside of the queries. By simultaneously achieving few queries to the input without significantly sacrificing runtime vis-a-vis known algorithms, we deepen the understanding of this canonical problem which is a cornerstone of complexity-within-P.
We also consider a range of tradeoffs between the number of terms involved in the queries and the depth of the decision tree. In particular, we prove that there exist o(n)-linear decision trees of depth ~O(n^3) for the
k-SUM problem.

Jean Cardinal, John Iacono, and Aurélien Ooms. Solving k-SUM Using Few Linear Queries. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 25:1-25:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.25, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Iacono, John and Ooms, Aur\'{e}lien}, title = {{Solving k-SUM Using Few Linear Queries}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {25:1--25:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63763}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.25}, annote = {Keywords: k-SUM problem, linear decision trees, point location, \$varepsilon\$-nets} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

A point visibility graph is a graph induced by a set of points in the plane, where every vertex corresponds to a point, and two vertices are adjacent whenever the two corresponding points are visible from each other, that is, the open segment between them does not contain any other point of the set.
We study the recognition problem for point visibility graphs: given a simple undirected graph, decide whether it is the visibility graph of some point set in the plane. We show that the problem is complete for the existential theory of the reals. Hence the problem is as hard as deciding the existence of a real solution to a system of polynomial inequalities. The proof involves simple substructures forcing collinearities in all realizations of some visibility graphs, which are applied to the algebraic universality constructions of Mnev and Richter-Gebert. This solves a longstanding open question and paves the way for the analysis of other classes of visibility graphs.
Furthermore, as a corollary of one of our construction, we show that there exist point visibility graphs that do not admit any geometric realization with points having integer coordinates.

Jean Cardinal and Udo Hoffmann. Recognition and Complexity of Point Visibility Graphs. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 171-185, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.171, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Hoffmann, Udo}, title = {{Recognition and Complexity of Point Visibility Graphs}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {171--185}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.171}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51390}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.171}, annote = {Keywords: point visibility graphs, recognition, existential theory of the reals} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)

We show that every triangulation (maximal planar graph) on n\ge 6 vertices can be flipped into a Hamiltonian triangulation using a sequence of less than n/2 combinatorial edge flips. The previously best upper bound uses 4-connectivity as a means to establish Hamiltonicity. But in general about 3n/5 flips are necessary to reach a 4-connected triangulation. Our result improves the upper bound on the diameter of the flip graph of combinatorial triangulations on n vertices from 5.2n-33.6 to 5n-23. We also show that for every triangulation on n vertices there is a simultaneous flip of less than 2n/3 edges to a 4-connected triangulation. The bound on the number of edges is tight, up to an additive constant. As another application we show that every planar graph on n vertices admits an arc diagram with less than n/2 biarcs, that is, after subdividing less than n/2 (of potentially 3n-6) edges the resulting graph admits a 2-page book embedding.

Jean Cardinal, Michael Hoffmann, Vincent Kusters, Csaba D. Tóth, and Manuel Wettstein. Arc Diagrams, Flip Distances, and Hamiltonian Triangulations. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 197-210, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Hoffmann, Michael and Kusters, Vincent and T\'{o}th, Csaba D. and Wettstein, Manuel}, title = {{Arc Diagrams, Flip Distances, and Hamiltonian Triangulations}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)}, pages = {197--210}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-78-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {30}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49141}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197}, annote = {Keywords: graph embeddings, edge flips, flip graph, separating triangles} }

X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Feedback submitted

Please try again later or send an E-mail