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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

A temporal graph is a graph whose edges appear only at certain points in time. In these graphs, reachability among nodes relies on paths that traverse edges in chronological order (temporal paths). Unlike standard paths, temporal paths may not be composable, thus the reachability relation is not transitive and connected components (i.e., sets of pairwise temporally connected nodes) do not form equivalence classes, a fact with far-reaching consequences.
Recently, Casteigts et al. [FOCS 2021] proposed a natural temporal analog of the seminal Erdős-Rényi random graph model, based on the same parameters n and p. The proposed model is obtained by randomly permuting the edges of an Erdős-Rényi random graph and interpreting this permutation as an ordering of presence times. Casteigts et al. showed that the well-known single threshold for connectivity in the Erdős-Rényi model fans out into multiple phase transitions for several distinct notions of reachability in the temporal setting.
The second most basic phenomenon studied by Erdős and Rényi in static (i.e., non-temporal) random graphs is the emergence of a giant connected component. However, the existence of a similar phase transition in the temporal model was left open until now. In this paper, we settle this question. We identify a sharp threshold at p = log n/n, where the size of the largest temporally connected component increases from o(n) to n-o(n) nodes. This transition occurs significantly later than in the static setting, where a giant component of size n-o(n) already exists for any p ∈ ω(1/n) (i.e., as soon as p is larger than a constant fraction of n). Interestingly, the threshold that we obtain holds for both open and closed connected components, i.e., components that allow, respectively forbid, their connecting paths to use external nodes - a distinction arising from the absence of transitivity.
We achieve these results by strengthening the tools from Casteigts et al. and developing new techniques that provide means to decouple dependencies between past and future events in temporal Erdős-Rényi graphs, which could be of general interest in future investigations of these objects.

Ruben Becker, Arnaud Casteigts, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Bojana Kodric, Malte Renken, Michael Raskin, and Viktor Zamaraev. Giant Components in Random Temporal Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29, author = {Becker, Ruben and Casteigts, Arnaud and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Kodric, Bojana and Renken, Malte and Raskin, Michael and Zamaraev, Viktor}, title = {{Giant Components in Random Temporal Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {29:1--29:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188542}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29}, annote = {Keywords: random temporal graph, Erd\H{o}s–R\'{e}nyi random graph, sharp threshold, temporal connectivity, temporal connected component, edge-ordered graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 265, 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)

Identifying influential nodes in a network is arguably one of the most important tasks in graph mining and network analysis. A large variety of centrality measures, all aiming at correctly quantifying a node’s importance in the network, have been formulated in the literature. One of the most cited ones is the betweenness centrality, formally introduced by Freeman (Sociometry, 1977). On the other hand, researchers have recently been very interested in capturing the dynamic nature of real-world networks by studying temporal graphs, rather than static ones. Clearly, centrality measures, including the betweenness centrality, have also been extended to temporal graphs. Buß et al. (KDD, 2020) gave algorithms to compute various notions of temporal betweenness centrality, including the perhaps most natural one - shortest temporal betweenness. Their algorithm computes centrality values of all nodes in time O(n³ T²), where n is the size of the network and T is the total number of time steps. For real-world networks, which easily contain tens of thousands of nodes, this complexity becomes prohibitive. Thus, it is reasonable to consider proxies for shortest temporal betweenness rankings that are more efficiently computed, and, therefore, allow for measuring the relative importance of nodes in very large temporal graphs. In this paper, we compare several such proxies on a diverse set of real-world networks. These proxies can be divided into global and local proxies. The considered global proxies include the exact algorithm for static betweenness (computed on the underlying graph), prefix foremost temporal betweenness of Buß et al., which is more efficiently computable than shortest temporal betweenness, and the recently introduced approximation approach of Santoro and Sarpe (WWW, 2022). As all of these global proxies are still expensive to compute on very large networks, we also turn to more efficiently computable local proxies. Here, we consider temporal versions of the ego-betweenness in the sense of Everett and Borgatti (Social Networks, 2005), standard degree notions, and a novel temporal degree notion termed the pass-through degree, that we introduce in this paper and which we consider to be one of our main contributions. We show that the pass-through degree, which measures the number of pairs of neighbors of a node that are temporally connected through it, can be computed in nearly linear time for all nodes in the network and we experimentally observe that it is surprisingly competitive as a proxy for shortest temporal betweenness.

Ruben Becker, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Antonio Cruciani, and Bojana Kodric. Proxying Betweenness Centrality Rankings in Temporal Networks. In 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 265, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6, author = {Becker, Ruben and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Cruciani, Antonio and Kodric, Bojana}, title = {{Proxying Betweenness Centrality Rankings in Temporal Networks}}, booktitle = {21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-279-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {265}, editor = {Georgiadis, Loukas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183568}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: node centrality, betweenness, temporal graphs, graph mining} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 190, 19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021)

A weighted link stream is a pair (V,𝔼) comprising V, the set of nodes, and 𝔼, the list of temporal edges (u,v,t,λ), where u,v are two nodes in V, t is the starting time of the temporal edge, and λ is its travel time. By making use of this model, different notions of diameter can be defined, which refer to the following distances: earliest arrival time, latest departure time, fastest time, and shortest time. After proving that any of these diameters cannot be computed in time sub-quadratic with respect to the number of temporal edges, we propose different algorithms (inspired by the approach used for computing the diameter of graphs) which allow us to compute, in practice very efficiently, the diameter of quite large real-world weighted link stream for several definitions of the diameter. Indeed, all the proposed algorithms require very often a very low number of single source (or target) best path computations. We verify the effectiveness of our approach by means of an extensive set of experiments on real-world link streams. We also experimentally prove that the temporal version of the well-known 2-sweep technique, for computing a lower bound on the diameter of a graph, is quite effective in the case of weighted link stream, by returning very often tight bounds.

Marco Calamai, Pierluigi Crescenzi, and Andrea Marino. On Computing the Diameter of (Weighted) Link Streams. In 19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 190, pp. 11:1-11:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{calamai_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2021.11, author = {Calamai, Marco and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Marino, Andrea}, title = {{On Computing the Diameter of (Weighted) Link Streams}}, booktitle = {19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021)}, pages = {11:1--11:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-185-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {190}, editor = {Coudert, David and Natale, Emanuele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2021.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137836}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2021.11}, annote = {Keywords: Temporal graph, shortest path, diameter} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)

Temporal graphs are graphs in which arcs have temporal labels, specifying at which time they can be traversed. Motivated by recent results concerning the reliability analysis of a temporal graph through the enumeration of minimal cutsets in the corresponding line graph, in this paper we attack the problem of enumerating minimal s-d separators in s-d directed acyclic graphs (in short, s-d DAGs), also known as 2-terminal DAGs or s-t digraphs. Our main result is an algorithm for enumerating all the minimal s-d separators in a DAG with O(nm) delay, where n and m are respectively the number of nodes and arcs, and the delay is the time between the output of two consecutive solutions. To this aim, we give a characterization of the minimal s-d separators in a DAG through vertex cuts of an expanded version of the DAG itself. As a consequence of our main result, we provide an algorithm for enumerating all the minimal s-d cutsets in a temporal graph with delay O(m³), where m is the number of temporal arcs.

Alessio Conte, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Andrea Marino, and Giulia Punzi. Enumeration of s-d Separators in DAGs with Application to Reliability Analysis in Temporal Graphs. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{conte_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.25, author = {Conte, Alessio and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Marino, Andrea and Punzi, Giulia}, title = {{Enumeration of s-d Separators in DAGs with Application to Reliability Analysis in Temporal Graphs}}, booktitle = {45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-159-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {170}, editor = {Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126932}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.25}, annote = {Keywords: minimal cutset, temporal graph, minimal separator, directed acyclic graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

The study of interactive proofs in the context of distributed network computing is a novel topic, recently introduced by Kol, Oshman, and Saxena [PODC 2018]. In the spirit of sequential interactive proofs theory, we study the power of distributed interactive proofs. This is achieved via a series of results establishing trade-offs between various parameters impacting the power of interactive proofs, including the number of interactions, the certificate size, the communication complexity, and the form of randomness used. Our results also connect distributed interactive proofs with the established field of distributed verification. In general, our results contribute to providing structure to the landscape of distributed interactive proofs.

Pierluigi Crescenzi, Pierre Fraigniaud, and Ami Paz. Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 13:1-13:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{crescenzi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13, author = {Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Fraigniaud, Pierre and Paz, Ami}, title = {{Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {13:1--13:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113202}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed interactive proofs, Distributed verification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 49, 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)

In this paper, we analyse the contents of the web site of two Italian press agencies and of four of the most popular Italian newspapers, in order to answer questions such as what are the most relevant news, what is the average life of news, and how much different are different sites. To this aim, we have developed a web-based application which hourly collects the articles in the main column of the six web sites, implements an incremental clustering algorithm for grouping the articles into news, and finally allows the user to see the answer to the above questions. We have also designed and implemented a two-layer modification of the incremental clustering algorithm and executed some preliminary experimental evaluation of this modification: it turns out that the two-layer clustering is extremely efficient in terms of time performances, and it has quite good performances in terms of precision and recall.

Francesco Cambi, Pierluigi Crescenzi, and Linda Pagli. Analyzing and Comparing On-Line News Sources via (Two-Layer) Incremental Clustering. In 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 49, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{cambi_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2016.9, author = {Cambi, Francesco and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Pagli, Linda}, title = {{Analyzing and Comparing On-Line News Sources via (Two-Layer) Incremental Clustering}}, booktitle = {8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-005-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {49}, editor = {Demaine, Erik D. and Grandoni, Fabrizio}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58777}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.9}, annote = {Keywords: text mining, incremental clustering, on-line news} }