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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

We study the Interval Selection problem in data streams: Given a stream of n intervals on the line, the objective is to compute a largest possible subset of non-overlapping intervals using O(|OPT|) space, where |OPT| is the size of an optimal solution. Previous work gave a 3/2-approximation for unit-length and a 2-approximation for arbitrary-length intervals [Emek et al., ICALP'12]. We extend this line of work to weighted intervals as well as to insertion-deletion streams. Our results include:
1) When considering weighted intervals, a (3/2+ε)-approximation can be achieved for unit intervals, but any constant factor approximation for arbitrary-length intervals requires space Ω(n).
2) In the insertion-deletion setting where intervals can both be added and deleted, we prove that, even without weights, computing a constant factor approximation for arbitrary-length intervals requires space Ω(n), whereas in the weighted unit-length intervals case a (2+ε)-approximation can be obtained. Our lower bound results are obtained via reductions to the recently introduced Chained-Index communication problem, further demonstrating the strength of this problem in the context of streaming geometric independent set problems.

Jacques Dark, Adithya Diddapur, and Christian Konrad. Interval Selection in Data Streams: Weighted Intervals and the Insertion-Deletion Setting. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 24:1-24:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{dark_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.24, author = {Dark, Jacques and Diddapur, Adithya and Konrad, Christian}, title = {{Interval Selection in Data Streams: Weighted Intervals and the Insertion-Deletion Setting}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {24:1--24:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193976}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.24}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming Algorithms, Interval Selection, Weighted Intervals, Insertion-deletion Streams} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

In this paper, we give simple optimal lower bounds on the one-way two-party communication complexity of approximate Maximum Matching and Minimum Vertex Cover with deletions. In our model, Alice holds a set of edges and sends a single message to Bob. Bob holds a set of edge deletions, which form a subset of Alice’s edges, and needs to report a large matching or a small vertex cover in the graph spanned by the edges that are not deleted. Our results imply optimal space lower bounds for insertion-deletion streaming algorithms for Maximum Matching and Minimum Vertex Cover.
Previously, Assadi et al. [SODA 2016] gave an optimal space lower bound for insertion-deletion streaming algorithms for Maximum Matching via the simultaneous model of communication. Our lower bound is simpler and stronger in several aspects: The lower bound of Assadi et al. only holds for algorithms that (1) are able to process streams that contain a triple exponential number of deletions in n, the number of vertices of the input graph; (2) are able to process multi-graphs; and (3) never output edges that do not exist in the input graph when the randomized algorithm errs. In contrast, our lower bound even holds for algorithms that (1) rely on short (O(n²)-length) input streams; (2) are only able to process simple graphs; and (3) may output non-existing edges when the algorithm errs.

Jacques Dark and Christian Konrad. Optimal Lower Bounds for Matching and Vertex Cover in Dynamic Graph Streams. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 30:1-30:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{dark_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.30, author = {Dark, Jacques and Konrad, Christian}, title = {{Optimal Lower Bounds for Matching and Vertex Cover in Dynamic Graph Streams}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {30:1--30:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125824}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.30}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum matching, Minimum vertex cover, Dynamic graph streams, Communication complexity, Lower bounds} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider the maximal and maximum independent set problems in three models of graph streams:
- In the edge model we see a stream of edges which collectively define a graph; this model is well-studied for a variety of problems. We show that the space complexity for a one-pass streaming algorithm to find a maximal independent set is quadratic (i.e. we must store all edges). We further show that it is not much easier if we only require approximate maximality. This contrasts strongly with the other two vertex-based models, where one can greedily find an exact solution in only the space needed to store the independent set.
- In the "explicit" vertex model, the input stream is a sequence of vertices making up the graph. Every vertex arrives along with its incident edges that connect to previously arrived vertices. Various graph problems require substantially less space to solve in this setting than in edge-arrival streams. We show that every one-pass c-approximation streaming algorithm for maximum independent set (MIS) on explicit vertex streams requires Omega({n^2}/{c^6}) bits of space, where n is the number of vertices of the input graph. It is already known that Theta~({n^2}/{c^2}) bits of space are necessary and sufficient in the edge arrival model (Halldórsson et al. 2012), thus the MIS problem is not significantly easier to solve under the explicit vertex arrival order assumption. Our result is proved via a reduction from a new multi-party communication problem closely related to pointer jumping.
- In the "implicit" vertex model, the input stream consists of a sequence of objects, one per vertex. The algorithm is equipped with a function that maps pairs of objects to the presence or absence of edges, thus defining the graph. This model captures, for example, geometric intersection graphs such as unit disc graphs. Our final set of results consists of several improved upper and lower bounds for interval and square intersection graphs, in both explicit and implicit streams. In particular, we show a gap between the hardness of the explicit and implicit vertex models for interval graphs.

Graham Cormode, Jacques Dark, and Christian Konrad. Independent Sets in Vertex-Arrival Streams. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 45:1-45:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cormode_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.45, author = {Cormode, Graham and Dark, Jacques and Konrad, Christian}, title = {{Independent Sets in Vertex-Arrival Streams}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {45:1--45:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106212}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.45}, annote = {Keywords: streaming algorithms, independent set size, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 98, 21st International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2018)

Many data sources can be interpreted as time-series, and a key problem is to identify which pairs out of a large collection of signals are highly correlated. We expect that there will be few, large, interesting correlations, while most signal pairs do not have any strong correlation. We abstract this as the problem of identifying the highly correlated pairs in a collection of n mostly pairwise uncorrelated random variables, where observations of the variables arrives as a stream. Dimensionality reduction can remove dependence on the number of observations, but further techniques are required to tame the quadratic (in n) cost of a search through all possible pairs.
We develop a new algorithm for rapidly finding large correlations based on sketch techniques with an added twist: we quickly generate sketches of random combinations of signals, and use these in concert with ideas from coding theory to decode the identity of correlated pairs. We prove correctness and compare performance and effectiveness with the best LSH (locality sensitive hashing) based approach.

Graham Cormode and Jacques Dark. Fast Sketch-based Recovery of Correlation Outliers. In 21st International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 98, pp. 13:1-13:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{cormode_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2018.13, author = {Cormode, Graham and Dark, Jacques}, title = {{Fast Sketch-based Recovery of Correlation Outliers}}, booktitle = {21st International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2018)}, pages = {13:1--13:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-063-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {98}, editor = {Kimelfeld, Benny and Amsterdamer, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2018.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86094}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2018.13}, annote = {Keywords: correlation, sketching, streaming, dimensionality reduction} }