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Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider the problem of finding a treasure at an unknown point of an n-dimensional infinite grid, n >= 3, by initially collocated finite automaton agents (scouts/robots). Recently, the problem has been well characterized for 2 dimensions for deterministic as well as randomized agents, both in synchronous and semi-synchronous models [S. Brandt et al., 2018; Y. Emek et al., 2015]. It has been conjectured that n+1 randomized agents are necessary to solve this problem in the n-dimensional grid [L. Cohen et al., 2017]. In this paper we disprove the conjecture in a strong sense: we show that three randomized synchronous agents suffice to explore an n-dimensional grid for any n. Our algorithm is optimal in terms of the number of the agents. Our key insight is that a constant number of finite automaton agents can, by their positions and movements, implement a stack, which can store the path being explored. We also show how to implement our algorithm using: four randomized semi-synchronous agents; four deterministic synchronous agents; or five deterministic semi-synchronous agents.
We give a different algorithm that uses 4 deterministic semi-synchronous agents for the 3-dimensional grid. This is provably optimal, and surprisingly, matches the result for 2 dimensions. For n >= 4, the time complexity of the solutions mentioned above is exponential in distance D of the treasure from the starting point of the agents. We show that in the deterministic case, one additional agent brings the time down to a polynomial. Finally, we focus on algorithms that never venture much beyond the distance D. We describe an algorithm that uses O(sqrt{n}) semi-synchronous deterministic agents that never go beyond 2D, as well as show that any algorithm using 3 synchronous deterministic agents in 3 dimensions, if it exists, must travel beyond Omega(D^{3/2}) from the origin.

Stefan Dobrev, Lata Narayanan, Jaroslav Opatrny, and Denis Pankratov. Exploration of High-Dimensional Grids by Finite Automata. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 139:1-139:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dobrev_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.139, author = {Dobrev, Stefan and Narayanan, Lata and Opatrny, Jaroslav and Pankratov, Denis}, title = {{Exploration of High-Dimensional Grids by Finite Automata}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {139:1--139:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.139}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107153}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.139}, annote = {Keywords: Multi-agent systems, finite state machines, high-dimensional grids, robot exploration, randomized agents, semi-synchronous and synchronous agents} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 95, 21st International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2017)

We consider the problem of fault-tolerant parallel exhaustive search, a.k.a. “Treasure Hunt”, introduced by Fraigniaud, Korman and Rodeh in [13]: Imagine an infinite list of “boxes”, one of which contains a “treasure”. The ordering of the boxes reflects the importance of finding the treasure in a given box. There are k agents, whose goal is to locate the treasure in the least amount of time. The system is synchronous; at every step, an agent can ”open” a box and see whether the treasure is there. The hunt finishes when the first agent locates the treasure.
The original paper [13] considers non-cooperating randomized agents, out of which at most f can fail, with the failure pattern determined by an adversary. In this paper, we consider deterministic agents and investigate two failure models: The failing-agents model from [13] and a “black hole” model: At most f boxes contain “black holes”, placed by the adversary. When an agent opens a box containing a black hole, the agent disappears without an observable trace.
The crucial distinction, however, is that we consider “barely communicating” or “indirectly weakly communicating” agents: When an agent opens a box, it can tell whether the box has been previously opened. There are no other means of direct or indirect communication between the agents.
We show that adding even such weak means of communication has very strong impact on the solvability and complexity of the Treasure Hunt problem. In particular, in the failing agents model it allows the agents to be 1-competitive w.r.t. an optimal algorithm which does not know the location of the treasure, but is instantly notified of agent failures. In the black holes model
(where there is no deterministic solution for non-communicating agents even in the presence of a single black hole) we show a lower bound of 2f + 1 and an upper bound of 4f + 1 for the number of agents needed to solve Treasure Hunt in presence of up to f black holes, as well as partial results about the hunt time in the presence of few black holes.

Stefan Dobrev, Rastislav Královic, and Dana Pardubská. Treasure Hunt with Barely Communicating Agents. In 21st International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 95, pp. 14:1-14:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{dobrev_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2017.14, author = {Dobrev, Stefan and Kr\'{a}lovic, Rastislav and Pardubsk\'{a}, Dana}, title = {{Treasure Hunt with Barely Communicating Agents}}, booktitle = {21st International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2017)}, pages = {14:1--14:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-061-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {95}, editor = {Aspnes, James and Bessani, Alysson and Felber, Pascal and Leit\~{a}o, Jo\~{a}o}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2017.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86346}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2017.14}, annote = {Keywords: parallel exhaustive search, treasure hunt, fault-tolerant search, weak coordination, black holes} }

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