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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Graph Burning models information spreading in a given graph as a process such that in each step one node is infected (informed) and also the infection spreads to all neighbors of previously infected nodes. Formally, given a graph G = (V,E), possibly with edge lengths, the burning number b(G) is the minimum number g such that there exist nodes v_0,…,v_{g-1} ∈ V satisfying the property that for each u ∈ V there exists i ∈ {0,…,g-1} so that the distance between u and v_i is at most i.
We present a randomized 2.314-approximation algorithm for computing the burning number of a general graph, even with arbitrary edge lengths. We complement this by an approximation lower bound of 2 for the case of equal length edges, and a lower bound of 4/3 for the case when edges are restricted to have length 1.
This improves on the previous 3-approximation algorithm and an APX-hardness result.

Matej Lieskovský, Jiří Sgall, and Andreas Emil Feldmann. Approximation Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Graph Burning. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 9:1-9:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{lieskovsky_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.9, author = {Lieskovsk\'{y}, Matej and Sgall, Ji\v{r}{\'\i} and Feldmann, Andreas Emil}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Graph Burning}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {9:1--9:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188345}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.9}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Algorithms, approximation Algorithms, randomized Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)

We consider the Sparse Hitting Set (Sparse-HS) problem, where we are given a set system (V,ℱ,ℬ) with two families ℱ,ℬ of subsets of the universe V. The task is to find a hitting set for ℱ that minimizes the maximum number of elements in any of the sets of ℬ. This generalizes several problems that have been studied in the literature. Our focus is on determining the complexity of some of these special cases of Sparse-HS with respect to the sparseness k, which is the optimum number of hitting set elements in any set of ℬ (i.e., the value of the objective function).
For the Sparse Vertex Cover (Sparse-VC) problem, the universe is given by the vertex set V of a graph, and ℱ is its edge set. We prove NP-hardness for sparseness k ≥ 2 and polynomial time solvability for k = 1. We also provide a polynomial-time 2-approximation algorithm for any k. A special case of Sparse-VC is Fair Vertex Cover (Fair-VC), where the family ℬ is given by vertex neighbourhoods. For this problem it was open whether it is FPT (or even XP) parameterized by the sparseness k. We answer this question in the negative, by proving NP-hardness for constant k. We also provide a polynomial-time (2-1/k)-approximation algorithm for Fair-VC, which is better than any approximation algorithm possible for Sparse-VC or the Vertex Cover problem (under the Unique Games Conjecture).
We then switch to a different set of problems derived from Sparse-HS related to the highway dimension, which is a graph parameter modelling transportation networks. In recent years a growing literature has shown interesting algorithms for graphs of low highway dimension. To exploit the structure of such graphs, most of them compute solutions to the r-Shortest Path Cover (r-SPC) problem, where r > 0, ℱ contains all shortest paths of length between r and 2r, and ℬ contains all balls of radius 2r. It is known that there is an XP algorithm that computes solutions to r-SPC of sparseness at most h if the input graph has highway dimension h. However it was not known whether a corresponding FPT algorithm exists as well. We prove that r-SPC and also the related r-Highway Dimension (r-HD) problem, which can be used to formally define the highway dimension of a graph, are both W[1]-hard. Furthermore, by the result of Abraham et al. [ICALP 2011] there is a polynomial-time O(log k)-approximation algorithm for r-HD, but for r-SPC such an algorithm is not known. We prove that r-SPC admits a polynomial-time O(log n)-approximation algorithm.

Johannes Blum, Yann Disser, Andreas Emil Feldmann, Siddharth Gupta, and Anna Zych-Pawlewicz. On Sparse Hitting Sets: From Fair Vertex Cover to Highway Dimension. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{blum_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5, author = {Blum, Johannes and Disser, Yann and Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Gupta, Siddharth and Zych-Pawlewicz, Anna}, title = {{On Sparse Hitting Sets: From Fair Vertex Cover to Highway Dimension}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-260-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {249}, editor = {Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173612}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: sparse hitting set, fair vertex cover, highway dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)

We present a novel linear program (LP) for the Steiner Tree problem, where a set of terminal vertices needs to be connected by a minimum weight tree in a graph G = (V,E) with non-negative edge weights. This well-studied problem is NP-hard and therefore does not have a compact extended formulation (describing the convex hull of all Steiner trees) of polynomial size, unless P=NP. On the other hand, Steiner Tree is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) when parameterized by the number k of terminals, and can be solved in O(3^k|V|+2^k|V|²) time via the Dreyfus-Wagner algorithm. A natural question thus is whether the Steiner Tree problem admits an extended formulation of comparable size. We first answer this in the negative by proving a lower bound on the extension complexity of the Steiner Tree polytope, which, for some constant c > 0, implies that no extended formulation of size f(k)2^{cn} exists for any function f. However, we are able to circumvent this lower bound due to the fact that the edge weights are non-negative: we prove that Steiner Tree admits an integral LP with O(3^k|E|) variables and constraints. The size of our LP matches the runtime of the Dreyfus-Wagner algorithm, and our poof gives a polyhedral perspective on this classic algorithm. Our proof is simple, and additionally improves on a previous result by Siebert et al. [2018], who gave an integral LP of size O((2k/e)^k)|V|^{O(1)}.

Andreas Emil Feldmann and Ashutosh Rai. On Extended Formulations For Parameterized Steiner Trees. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.18, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Rai, Ashutosh}, title = {{On Extended Formulations For Parameterized Steiner Trees}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)}, pages = {18:1--18:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-216-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {214}, editor = {Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154010}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.18}, annote = {Keywords: Steiner trees, integral linear program, extension complexity, fixed-parameter tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

We develop an FPT algorithm and a compression for the Weighted Edge Clique Partition (WECP) problem, where a graph with n vertices and integer edge weights is given together with an integer k, and the aim is to find k cliques, such that every edge appears in exactly as many cliques as its weight. The problem has been previously only studied in the unweighted version called Edge Clique Partition (ECP), where the edges need to be partitioned into k cliques. It was shown that ECP admits a kernel with k² vertices [Mujuni and Rosamond, 2008], but this kernel does not extend to WECP. The previously fastest algorithm known for ECP has a runtime of 2^𝒪(k²)n^O(1) [Issac, 2019]. For WECP we develop a compression (to a slightly more general problem) with 4^k vertices, and an algorithm with runtime 2^𝒪(k^(3/2)w^(1/2)log(k/w))n^O(1), where w is the maximum edge weight. The latter in particular improves the runtime for ECP to 2^𝒪(k^(3/2)log k)n^O(1).

Andreas Emil Feldmann, Davis Issac, and Ashutosh Rai. Fixed-Parameter Tractability of the Weighted Edge Clique Partition Problem. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 17:1-17:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Issac, Davis and Rai, Ashutosh}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Tractability of the Weighted Edge Clique Partition Problem}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {17:1--17:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133206}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17}, annote = {Keywords: Edge Clique Partition, fixed-parameter tractability, kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

We study clustering problems such as k-Median, k-Means, and Facility Location in graphs of low highway dimension, which is a graph parameter modeling transportation networks. It was previously shown that approximation schemes for these problems exist, which either run in quasi-polynomial time (assuming constant highway dimension) [Feldmann et al. SICOMP 2018] or run in FPT time (parameterized by the number of clusters k, the highway dimension, and the approximation factor) [Becker et al. ESA 2018, Braverman et al. 2020]. In this paper we show that a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) exists (assuming constant highway dimension). We also show that the considered problems are NP-hard on graphs of highway dimension 1.

Andreas Emil Feldmann and David Saulpic. Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Clustering in Low Highway Dimension Graphs. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 46:1-46:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.46, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Saulpic, David}, title = {{Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Clustering in Low Highway Dimension Graphs}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {46:1--46:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129129}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.46}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Scheme, Clustering, Highway Dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 162, 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)

We consider the problem of coloring an interval graph dynamically. Intervals arrive one after the other and have to be colored immediately such that no two intervals of the same color overlap. In each step only a limited number of intervals may be recolored to maintain a proper coloring (thus interpolating between the well-studied online and offline settings). The number of allowed recolorings per step is the so-called recourse budget. Our main aim is to prove both upper and lower bounds on the required recourse budget for interval graphs, given a bound on the allowed number of colors.
For general interval graphs with n vertices and chromatic number k it is known that some recoloring is needed even if we have 2k colors available. We give an algorithm that maintains a 2k-coloring with an amortized recourse budget of 𝒪(log n). For maintaining a k-coloring with k ≤ n, we give an amortized upper bound of 𝒪(k⋅ k! ⋅ √n), and a lower bound of Ω(k) for k ∈ 𝒪(√n), which can be as large as Ω(√n).
For unit interval graphs it is known that some recoloring is needed even if we have k+1 colors available. We give an algorithm that maintains a (k+1)-coloring with at most 𝒪(k²) recolorings per step in the worst case. We also give a lower bound of Ω(log n) on the amortized recourse budget needed to maintain a k-coloring.
Additionally, for general interval graphs we show that if one does not insist on maintaining an explicit coloring, one can have a k-coloring algorithm which does not incur a factor of 𝒪(k ⋅ k! ⋅ √n) in the running time. For this we provide a data structure, which allows for adding intervals in 𝒪(k² log³ n) amortized time per update and querying for the color of a particular interval in 𝒪(log n) time. Between any two updates, the data structure answers consistently with some optimal coloring. The data structure maintains the coloring implicitly, so the notion of recourse budget does not apply to it.

Bartłomiej Bosek, Yann Disser, Andreas Emil Feldmann, Jakub Pawlewicz, and Anna Zych-Pawlewicz. Recoloring Interval Graphs with Limited Recourse Budget. In 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 162, pp. 17:1-17:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bosek_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.17, author = {Bosek, Bart{\l}omiej and Disser, Yann and Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Pawlewicz, Jakub and Zych-Pawlewicz, Anna}, title = {{Recoloring Interval Graphs with Limited Recourse Budget}}, booktitle = {17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)}, pages = {17:1--17:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-150-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {162}, editor = {Albers, Susanne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122649}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.17}, annote = {Keywords: Colouring, Dynamic Algorithms, Recourse Budget, Interval Graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

Cut problems and connectivity problems on digraphs are two well-studied classes of problems from the viewpoint of parameterized complexity. After a series of papers over the last decade, we now have (almost) tight bounds for the running time of several standard variants of these problems parameterized by two parameters: the number k of terminals and the size p of the solution. When there is evidence of FPT intractability, then the next natural alternative is to consider FPT approximations. In this paper, we show two types of results for directed cut and connectivity problems, building on existing results from the literature: first is to circumvent the hardness results for these problems by designing FPT approximation algorithms, or alternatively strengthen the existing hardness results by creating "gap-instances" under stronger hypotheses such as the (Gap-)Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH). Formally, we show the following results:
Cutting paths between a set of terminal pairs, i.e., Directed Multicut: Pilipczuk and Wahlstrom [TOCT '18] showed that Directed Multicut is W[1]-hard when parameterized by p if k=4. We complement this by showing the following two results:
- Directed Multicut has a k/2-approximation in 2^{O(p^2)}* n^{O(1)} time (i.e., a 2-approximation if k=4),
- Under Gap-ETH, Directed Multicut does not admit an (59/58-epsilon)-approximation in f(p)* n^{O(1)} time, for any computable function f, even if k=4.
Connecting a set of terminal pairs, i.e., Directed Steiner Network (DSN): The DSN problem on general graphs is known to be W[1]-hard parameterized by p+k due to Guo et al. [SIDMA '11]. Dinur and Manurangsi [ITCS '18] further showed that there is no FPT k^{1/4-o(1)}-approximation algorithm parameterized by k, under Gap-ETH. Chitnis et al. [SODA '14] considered the restriction to special graph classes, but unfortunately this does not lead to FPT algorithms either: DSN on planar graphs is W[1]-hard parameterized by k. In this paper we consider the DSN_Planar problem which is an intermediate version: the graph is general, but we want to find a solution whose cost is at most that of an optimal planar solution (if one exists). We show the following lower bounds for DSN_Planar:
- DSN_Planar has no (2-epsilon)-approximation in FPT time parameterized by k, under Gap-ETH. This answers in the negative a question of Chitnis et al. [ESA '18].
- DSN_Planar is W[1]-hard parameterized by k+p. Moreover, under ETH, there is no (1+epsilon)-approximation for DSN_Planar in f(k,p,epsilon)* n^{o(k+sqrt{p+1/epsilon})} time for any computable function f.
Pairwise connecting a set of terminals, i.e., Strongly Connected Steiner Subgraph (SCSS): Guo et al. [SIDMA '11] showed that SCSS is W[1]-hard parameterized by p+k, while Chitnis et al. [SODA '14] showed that SCSS remains W[1]-hard parameterized by p, even if the input graph is planar. In this paper we consider the SCSS_Planar problem which is an intermediate version: the graph is general, but we want to find a solution whose cost is at most that of an optimal planar solution (if one exists). We show the following lower bounds for SCSS_Planar:
- SCSS_Planar is W[1]-hard parameterized by k+p. Moreover, under ETH, there is no (1+epsilon)-approximation for SCSS_Planar in f(k,p,epsilon)* n^{o(sqrt{k+p+1/epsilon})} time for any computable function f.
Previously, the only known FPT approximation results for SCSS applied to general graphs parameterized by k: a 2-approximation by Chitnis et al. [IPEC '13], and a matching (2-epsilon)-hardness under Gap-ETH by Chitnis et al. [ESA '18].

Rajesh Chitnis and Andreas Emil Feldmann. FPT Inapproximability of Directed Cut and Connectivity Problems. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{chitnis_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.8, author = {Chitnis, Rajesh and Feldmann, Andreas Emil}, title = {{FPT Inapproximability of Directed Cut and Connectivity Problems}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {8:1--8:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114692}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.8}, annote = {Keywords: Directed graphs, cuts, connectivity, Steiner problems, FPT inapproximability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

The Directed Steiner Network (DSN) problem takes as input a directed edge-weighted graph G=(V,E) and a set {D}subseteq V x V of k demand pairs. The aim is to compute the cheapest network N subseteq G for which there is an s -> t path for each (s,t)in {D}. It is known that this problem is notoriously hard as there is no k^{1/4-o(1)}-approximation algorithm under Gap-ETH, even when parameterizing the runtime by k [Dinur & Manurangsi, ITCS 2018]. In light of this, we systematically study several special cases of DSN and determine their parameterized approximability for the parameter k.
For the bi-DSN_Planar problem, the aim is to compute a planar optimum solution N subseteq G in a bidirected graph G, i.e. for every edge uv of G the reverse edge vu exists and has the same weight. This problem is a generalization of several well-studied special cases. Our main result is that this problem admits a parameterized approximation scheme (PAS) for k. We also prove that our result is tight in the sense that (a) the runtime of our PAS cannot be significantly improved, and (b) it is unlikely that a PAS exists for any generalization of bi-DSN_Planar, unless FPT=W[1]. Additionally we study several generalizations of bi-DSN_Planar and obtain upper and lower bounds on obtainable runtimes parameterized by k.
One important special case of DSN is the Strongly Connected Steiner Subgraph (SCSS) problem, for which the solution network N subseteq G needs to strongly connect a given set of k terminals. It has been observed before that for SCSS a parameterized 2-approximation exists when parameterized by k [Chitnis et al., IPEC 2013]. We show a tight inapproximability result: under Gap-ETH there is no (2-{epsilon})-approximation algorithm parameterized by k (for any epsilon>0). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a W[1]-hard problem admitting a non-trivial parameterized approximation factor which is also known to be tight! Additionally we show that when restricting the input of SCSS to bidirected graphs, the problem remains NP-hard but becomes FPT for k.

Rajesh Chitnis, Andreas Emil Feldmann, and Pasin Manurangsi. Parameterized Approximation Algorithms for Bidirected Steiner Network Problems. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 20:1-20:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chitnis_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.20, author = {Chitnis, Rajesh and Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Manurangsi, Pasin}, title = {{Parameterized Approximation Algorithms for Bidirected Steiner Network Problems}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {20:1--20:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94833}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.20}, annote = {Keywords: Directed Steiner Network, Strongly Connected Steiner Subgraph, Parameterized Approximations, Bidirected Graphs, Planar Graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

In this paper we study the hardness of the k-Center problem on inputs that model transportation networks. For the problem, an edge-weighted graph G=(V,E) and an integer k are given and a center set C subseteq V needs to be chosen such that |C|<= k. The aim is to minimize the maximum distance of any vertex in the graph to the closest center. This problem arises in many applications of logistics, and thus it is natural to consider inputs that model transportation networks. Such inputs are often assumed to be planar graphs, low doubling metrics, or bounded highway dimension graphs. For each of these models, parameterized approximation algorithms have been shown to exist. We complement these results by proving that the k-Center problem is W[1]-hard on planar graphs of constant doubling dimension, where the parameter is the combination of the number of centers k, the highway dimension h, and even the treewidth t. Moreover, under the Exponential Time Hypothesis there is no f(k,t,h)* n^{o(t+sqrt{k+h})} time algorithm for any computable function f. Thus it is unlikely that the optimum solution to k-Center can be found efficiently, even when assuming that the input graph abides to all of the above models for transportation networks at once!
Additionally we give a simple parameterized (1+{epsilon})-approximation algorithm for inputs of doubling dimension d with runtime (k^k/{epsilon}^{O(kd)})* n^{O(1)}. This generalizes a previous result, which considered inputs in D-dimensional L_q metrics.

Andreas Emil Feldmann and Dániel Marx. The Parameterized Hardness of the k-Center Problem in Transportation Networks. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 19:1-19:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.19, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Marx, D\'{a}niel}, title = {{The Parameterized Hardness of the k-Center Problem in Transportation Networks}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {19:1--19:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88450}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.19}, annote = {Keywords: k-center, parameterized complexity, planar graphs, doubling dimension, highway dimension, treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

We study the Steiner Tree problem, in which a set of terminal vertices needs to be connected in the cheapest possible way in an edge-weighted graph. This problem has been extensively studied from the viewpoint of approximation and also parametrization. In particular, on one hand Steiner Tree is known to be APX-hard, and W[2]-hard on the other, if parameterized by the number of non-terminals (Steiner vertices) in the optimum solution. In contrast to this we give an efficient parameterized approximation scheme (EPAS), which circumvents both hardness results. Moreover, our methods imply the existence of a polynomial size approximate kernelization scheme (PSAKS) for the considered parameter.
We further study the parameterized approximability of other variants of Steiner Tree, such as Directed Steiner Tree and Steiner Forest. For neither of these an EPAS is likely to exist for the studied parameter: for Steiner Forest an easy observation shows that the problem is APX-hard, even if the input graph contains no Steiner vertices. For Directed Steiner Tree we prove that computing a constant approximation for this parameter is W[1]-hard. Nevertheless, we show that an EPAS exists for Unweighted Directed Steiner Tree. Also we prove that there is an EPAS and a PSAKS for Steiner Forest if in addition to the number of Steiner vertices, the number of connected components of an optimal solution is considered to be a parameter.

Pavel Dvorák, Andreas Emil Feldmann, Dušan Knop, Tomáš Masarík, Tomáš Toufar, and Pavel Veselý. Parameterized Approximation Schemes for Steiner Trees with Small Number of Steiner Vertices. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 26:1-26:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{dvorak_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.26, author = {Dvor\'{a}k, Pavel and Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Knop, Du\v{s}an and Masar{\'\i}k, Tom\'{a}\v{s} and Toufar, Tom\'{a}\v{s} and Vesel\'{y}, Pavel}, title = {{Parameterized Approximation Schemes for Steiner Trees with Small Number of Steiner Vertices}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {26:1--26:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85158}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.26}, annote = {Keywords: Steiner Tree, Steiner Forest, Approximation Algorithms, Parameterized Algorithms, Lossy Kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

In a standard f-connectivity network design problem, we are given an undirected graph G = (V, E), a cut-requirement function f : 2^V to N, and non-negative costs c(e) for all e in E. We are then asked to find a minimum-cost vector x in N^E such that x(delta(S)) geq f (S) for all S subseteq V. We focus on the class of such problems where f is a proper function. This encodes many well-studied NP-hard problems such as the generalized survivable network design problem.
In this paper we present the first strongly polynomial time FPTAS for solving the LP relaxation of the standard IP formulation of the f-connectivity problem with general proper functions f. Implementing Jain’s algorithm, this yields a strongly polynomial time (2 + epsilon)-approximation for the generalized survivable network design problem (where we consider rounding up of rationals an arithmetic operation).

Andreas Emil Feldmann, Jochen Könemann, Kanstantsin Pashkovich, and Laura Sanità. Fast Approximation Algorithms for the Generalized Survivable Network Design Problem. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 33:1-33:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.33, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and K\"{o}nemann, Jochen and Pashkovich, Kanstantsin and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, title = {{Fast Approximation Algorithms for the Generalized Survivable Network Design Problem}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {33:1--33:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68035}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.33}, annote = {Keywords: strongly polynomial runtime, generalized survivable network design, primal-dual method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

Given a directed graph G and a list (s_1, t_1), ..., (s_k, t_k) of terminal pairs, the Directed Steiner Network problem asks for a minimum-cost subgraph of G that contains a directed s_i -> t_i path for every 1 <= i <= k. The special case Directed Steiner Tree (when we ask for paths from a root r to terminals t_1, . . . , t_k) is known to be fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by the number of terminals, while the special case Strongly Connected Steiner Subgraph (when we ask for a path from every t_i to every other t_j ) is known to be W[1]-hard parameterized by the number of terminals. We systematically explore the complexity landscape of directed Steiner problems to fully understand which other special cases are FPT or W[1]-hard. Formally, if H is a class of directed graphs, then we look at the special case of Directed Steiner Network where the list (s_1, t_1), ..., (s_k, t_k) of requests form a directed graph that is a member of H. Our main result is a complete characterization of the classes H resulting in fixed-parameter tractable special cases: we show that if every pattern in H has the combinatorial property of being "transitively equivalent to a bounded-length caterpillar with a bounded number of extra edges," then the problem is FPT, and it is W[1]-hard for every recursively enumerable H not having this property. This complete dichotomy unifies and generalizes the known results showing that Directed Steiner Tree is FPT [Dreyfus and Wagner, Networks 1971], Strongly Connected Steiner Subgraph is W[1]-hard [Guo et al., SIAM J. Discrete Math. 2011], and Directed Steiner Network is solvable in polynomial-time for constant number of terminals [Feldman and Ruhl, SIAM J. Comput. 2006], and moreover reveals a large continent of tractable cases that were not known before.

Andreas Emil Feldmann and Dániel Marx. The Complexity Landscape of Fixed-Parameter Directed Steiner Network Problems. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.27, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Marx, D\'{a}niel}, title = {{The Complexity Landscape of Fixed-Parameter Directed Steiner Network Problems}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63060}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.27}, annote = {Keywords: Directed Steiner Tree, Directed Steiner Network, fixed-parameter tractability, dichotomy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

The bottleneck of the currently best (ln(4) + epsilon)-approximation algorithm for the NP-hard Steiner tree problem is the solution of its large, so called hypergraphic, linear programming relaxation (HYP). Hypergraphic LPs are NP-hard to solve exactly, and it is a formidable computational task to even approximate them sufficiently well.
We focus on another well-studied but poorly understood LP relaxation of the problem: the bidirected cut relaxation (BCR). This LP is compact, and can therefore be solved efficiently. Its integrality gap is known to be greater than 1.16, and while this is widely conjectured to be close to the real answer, only a (trivial) upper bound of 2 is known.
In this paper, we give an efficient constructive proof that BCR and HYP are polyhedrally equivalent in instances that do not have an (edge-induced) claw on Steiner vertices, i.e., they do not contain a Steiner vertex with 3 Steiner neighbors. This implies faster ln(4)-approximations for these graphs, and is a significant step forward from the previously known equivalence for (so called quasi-bipartite) instances in which Steiner vertices form an independent set. We complement our results by showing that even restricting to instances where Steiner vertices induce one single star, determining whether the two relaxations are equivalent is NP-hard.

Andreas Emil Feldmann, Jochen Könemann, Neil Olver, and Laura Sanità. On the Equivalence of the Bidirected and Hypergraphic Relaxations for Steiner Tree. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 176-191, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.176, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and K\"{o}nemann, Jochen and Olver, Neil and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, title = {{On the Equivalence of the Bidirected and Hypergraphic Relaxations for Steiner Tree}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {176--191}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.176}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-46962}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.176}, annote = {Keywords: Steiner tree, bidirected cut relaxation, hypergraphic relaxation, polyhedral equivalence, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 14, 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)

We study the k-BALANCED PARTITIONING problem in which the vertices of a graph are to be partitioned into k sets of size at most ceil(n/k) while minimising the cut size, which is the number of edges connecting vertices in different sets. The problem is well studied for general graphs, for which it cannot be approximated within any factor in polynomial time. However, little is known about restricted graph classes. We show that for trees k-BALANCED PARTITIONING remains surprisingly hard. In particular, approximating the cut size is APX-hard even if the maximum degree of the tree is constant. If instead the diameter of the tree is bounded by a constant, we show
that it is NP-hard to approximate the cut size within n^c, for any constant c<1.
In the face of the hardness results, we show that allowing near-balanced solutions, in which there are at most (1+eps)ceil(n/k)
vertices in any of the k sets, admits a PTAS for trees. Remarkably, the computed cut size is no larger than that of an optimal balanced solution. In the final section of our paper, we harness results on embedding graph metrics into tree metrics to extend our PTAS for trees to general graphs. In addition to being conceptually simpler and easier to analyse, our scheme improves the best factor known on the cut size of near-balanced solutions from O(log^{1.5}(n)/eps^2) [Andreev and Räcke TCS 2006] to 0(log n), for weighted graphs. This also settles a question posed by Andreev and Räcke of whether an algorithm with approximation guarantees on the cut size independent from eps exists.

Andreas Emil Feldmann and Luca Foschini. Balanced Partitions of Trees and Applications. In 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 14, pp. 100-111, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2012.100, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Foschini, Luca}, title = {{Balanced Partitions of Trees and Applications}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)}, pages = {100--111}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-35-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {14}, editor = {D\"{u}rr, Christoph and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.100}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-34081}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.100}, annote = {Keywords: balanced partitioning, bicriteria approximation, hardness of approximation, tree embeddings} }

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