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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Quantum mechanical effects have enabled the construction of cryptographic primitives that are impossible classically. For example, quantum copy-protection allows for a program to be encoded in a quantum state in such a way that the program can be evaluated, but not copied. Many of these cryptographic primitives are two-party protocols, where one party, Bob, has full quantum computational capabilities, and the other party, Alice, is only required to send random BB84 states to Bob. In this work, we show how such protocols can generically be converted to ones where Alice is fully classical, assuming that Bob cannot efficiently solve the LWE problem. In particular, this means that all communication between (classical) Alice and (quantum) Bob is classical, yet they can still make use of cryptographic primitives that would be impossible if both parties were classical. We apply this conversion procedure to obtain quantum cryptographic protocols with classical communication for unclonable encryption, copy-protection, computing on encrypted data, and verifiable blind delegated computation.
The key technical ingredient for our result is a protocol for classically-instructed parallel remote state preparation of BB84 states. This is a multi-round protocol between (classical) Alice and (quantum polynomial-time) Bob that allows Alice to certify that Bob must have prepared n uniformly random BB84 states (up to a change of basis on his space). While previous approaches could only certify one- or two-qubit states, our protocol allows for the certification of an n-fold tensor product of BB84 states. Furthermore, Alice knows which specific BB84 states Bob has prepared, while Bob himself does not. Hence, the situation at the end of this protocol is (almost) equivalent to one where Alice sent n random BB84 states to Bob. This allows us to replace the step of preparing and sending BB84 states in existing protocols by our remote-state preparation protocol in a generic and modular way.

Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba. Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gheorghiu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67, author = {Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Metger, Tony and Poremba, Alexander}, title = {{Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {67:1--67:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181197}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Remote state preparation, Self-testing, Learning with errors, Quantum copy-protection, Unclonable encryption, Quantum verification} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Blind delegation protocols allow a client to delegate a computation to a server so that the server learns nothing about the input to the computation apart from its size. For the specific case of quantum computation we know, from work over the past decade, that blind delegation protocols can achieve information-theoretic security (provided the client and the server exchange some amount of quantum information). In this paper we prove, provided certain complexity-theoretic conjectures are true, that the power of information-theoretically secure blind delegation protocols for quantum computation (ITS-BQC protocols) is in a number of ways constrained.
In the first part of our paper we provide some indication that ITS-BQC protocols for delegating polynomial-time quantum computations in which the client and the server interact only classically are unlikely to exist. We first show that having such a protocol in which the client and the server exchange O(n^d) bits of communication, implies that BQP subset MA/O(n^d). We conjecture that this containment is unlikely by proving that there exists an oracle relative to which BQP not subset MA/O(n^d). We then show that if an ITS-BQC protocol exists in which the client and the server interact only classically and which allows the client to delegate quantum sampling problems to the server (such as BosonSampling) then there exist non-uniform circuits of size 2^{n - Omega(n/log(n))}, making polynomially-sized queries to an NP^{NP} oracle, for computing the permanent of an n x n matrix.
The second part of our paper concerns ITS-BQC protocols in which the client and the server engage in one round of quantum communication and then exchange polynomially many classical messages. First, we provide a complexity-theoretic upper bound on the types of functions that could be delegated in such a protocol by showing that they must be contained in QCMA/qpoly cap coQCMA/qpoly. Then, we show that having such a protocol for delegating NP-hard functions implies coNP^{NP^{NP}} subseteq NP^{NP^{PromiseQMA}}.

Scott Aaronson, Alexandru Cojocaru, Alexandru Gheorghiu, and Elham Kashefi. Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Cojocaru, Alexandru and Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Kashefi, Elham}, title = {{Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {6:1--6:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105826}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Complexity theory, Delegated quantum computation, Computing on encrypted data} }

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