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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We study the problem of k-means clustering in the space of straight-line segments in ℝ² under the Hausdorff distance. For this problem, we give a (1+ε)-approximation algorithm that, for an input of n segments, for any fixed k, and with constant success probability, runs in time O(n + ε^{-O(k)} + ε^{-O(k)} ⋅ log^O(k) (ε^{-1})). The algorithm has two main ingredients. Firstly, we express the k-means objective in our metric space as a sum of algebraic functions and use the optimization technique of Vigneron [Antoine Vigneron, 2014] to approximate its minimum. Secondly, we reduce the input size by computing a small size coreset using the sensitivity-based sampling framework by Feldman and Langberg [Dan Feldman and Michael Langberg, 2011; Feldman et al., 2020]. Our results can be extended to polylines of constant complexity with a running time of O(n + ε^{-O(k)}).

Sergio Cabello and Panos Giannopoulos. On k-Means for Segments and Polylines. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 28:1-28:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cabello_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.28, author = {Cabello, Sergio and Giannopoulos, Panos}, title = {{On k-Means for Segments and Polylines}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {28:1--28:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186812}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.28}, annote = {Keywords: k-means clustering, segments, polylines, Hausdorff distance, Fr\'{e}chet mean} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We study the following separation problem: Given a collection of colored objects in the plane, compute a shortest "fence" F, i.e., a union of curves of minimum total length, that separates every two objects of different colors. Two objects are separated if F contains a simple closed curve that has one object in the interior and the other in the exterior. We refer to the problem as GEOMETRIC k-CUT, where k is the number of different colors, as it can be seen as a geometric analogue to the well-studied multicut problem on graphs. We first give an O(n^4 log^3 n)-time algorithm that computes an optimal fence for the case where the input consists of polygons of two colors and n corners in total. We then show that the problem is NP-hard for the case of three colors. Finally, we give a (2-4/3k)-approximation algorithm.

Mikkel Abrahamsen, Panos Giannopoulos, Maarten Löffler, and Günter Rote. Geometric Multicut. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 9:1-9:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{abrahamsen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.9, author = {Abrahamsen, Mikkel and Giannopoulos, Panos and L\"{o}ffler, Maarten and Rote, G\"{u}nter}, title = {{Geometric Multicut}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {9:1--9:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105850}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.9}, annote = {Keywords: multicut, clustering, Steiner tree} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

A terrain is an x-monotone polygonal curve, i.e., successive vertices have increasing x-coordinates. Terrain Guarding can be seen as a special case of the famous art gallery problem where one has to place at most k guards on a terrain made of n vertices in order to fully see it. In 2010, King and Krohn showed that Terrain Guarding is NP-complete [SODA '10, SIAM J. Comput. '11] thereby solving a long-standing open question. They observe that their proof does not settle the complexity of Orthogonal Terrain Guarding where the terrain only consists of horizontal or vertical segments; those terrains are called rectilinear or orthogonal. Recently, Ashok et al. [SoCG'17] presented an FPT algorithm running in time k^{O(k)}n^{O(1)} for Dominating Set in the visibility graphs of rectilinear terrains without 180-degree vertices. They ask if Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is in P or NP-hard. In the same paper, they give a subexponential-time algorithm running in n^{O(sqrt n)} (actually even n^{O(sqrt k)}) for the general Terrain Guarding and notice that the hardness proof of King and Krohn only disproves a running time 2^{o(n^{1/4})} under the ETH. Hence, there is a significant gap between their 2^{O(n^{1/2} log n)}-algorithm and the no 2^{o(n^{1/4})} ETH-hardness implied by King and Krohn's result.
In this paper, we answer those two remaining questions. We adapt the gadgets of King and Krohn to rectilinear terrains in order to prove that even Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete. Then, we show how their reduction from Planar 3-SAT (as well as our adaptation for rectilinear terrains) can actually be made linear (instead of quadratic).

Édouard Bonnet and Panos Giannopoulos. Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 11:1-11:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos}, title = {{Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {11:1--11:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87246}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11}, annote = {Keywords: terrain guarding, rectilinear terrain, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

A (unit) disk graph is the intersection graph of closed (unit) disks in the plane. Almost three decades ago, an elegant polynomial-time algorithm was found for Maximum Clique on unit disk graphs [Clark, Colbourn, Johnson; Discrete Mathematics '90]. Since then, it has been an intriguing open question whether or not tractability can be extended to general disk graphs. We show the rather surprising structural result that a disjoint union of cycles is the complement of a disk graph if and only if at most one of those cycles is of odd length. From that, we derive the first QPTAS and subexponential algorithm running in time 2^{O~(n^{2/3})} for Maximum Clique on disk graphs. In stark contrast, Maximum Clique on intersection graphs of filled ellipses or filled triangles is unlikely to have such algorithms, even when the ellipses are close to unit disks. Indeed, we show that there is a constant ratio of approximation which cannot be attained even in time 2^{n^{1-epsilon}}, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails.

Édouard Bonnet, Panos Giannopoulos, Eun Jung Kim, Pawel Rzazewski, and Florian Sikora. QPTAS and Subexponential Algorithm for Maximum Clique on Disk Graphs. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 12:1-12:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos and Kim, Eun Jung and Rzazewski, Pawel and Sikora, Florian}, title = {{QPTAS and Subexponential Algorithm for Maximum Clique on Disk Graphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87259}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: disk graph, maximum clique, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

We study the following geometric separation problem: Given a set R of red points and a set B of blue points in the plane, find a minimum-size set of lines that separate R from B. We show that, in its full generality, parameterized by the number of lines k in the solution, the problem is unlikely to be solvable significantly faster than the brute-force n^{O(k)}-time algorithm, where n is the total number of points.
Indeed, we show that an algorithm running in time f(k)n^{o(k/log k)}, for any computable function f, would disprove ETH. Our reduction crucially relies on selecting lines from a set with a large number of different slopes (i.e., this number is not a function of k).
Conjecturing that the problem variant where the lines are required to be axis-parallel is FPT in the number of lines, we show the following preliminary result.
Separating R from B with a minimum-size set of axis-parallel lines is FPT in the size of either set, and can be solved in time O^*(9^{|B|}) (assuming that B is the smallest set).

Édouard Bonnet, Panos Giannopoulos, and Michael Lampis. On the Parameterized Complexity of Red-Blue Points Separation. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos and Lampis, Michael}, title = {{On the Parameterized Complexity of Red-Blue Points Separation}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85687}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: red-blue points separation, geometric problem, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness, FPT algorithm, ETH-based lower bound} }