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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 308, 32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024)

We consider an incremental variant of the rooted prize-collecting Steiner-tree problem with a growing budget constraint. While no incremental solution exists that simultaneously approximates the optimum for all budgets, we show that a bicriterial (α,μ)-approximation is possible, i.e., a solution that with budget B+α for all B ∈ ℝ_{≥ 0} is a multiplicative μ-approximation compared to the optimum solution with budget B. For the case that the underlying graph is a tree, we present a polynomial-time density-greedy algorithm that computes a (χ,1)-approximation, where χ denotes the eccentricity of the root vertex in the underlying graph, and show that this is best possible. An adaptation of the density-greedy algorithm for general graphs is (γ,2)-competitive where γ is the maximal length of a vertex-disjoint path starting in the root. While this algorithm does not run in polynomial time, it can be adapted to a (γ,3)-competitive algorithm that runs in polynomial time. We further devise a capacity-scaling algorithm that guarantees a (3χ,8)-approximation and, more generally, a ((4𝓁 - 1)χ, (2^{𝓁 + 2})/(2^𝓁 -1))-approximation for every fixed 𝓁 ∈ ℕ.

Yann Disser, Svenja M. Griesbach, Max Klimm, and Annette Lutz. Bicriterial Approximation for the Incremental Prize-Collecting Steiner-Tree Problem. In 32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 308, pp. 47:1-47:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{disser_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2024.47, author = {Disser, Yann and Griesbach, Svenja M. and Klimm, Max and Lutz, Annette}, title = {{Bicriterial Approximation for the Incremental Prize-Collecting Steiner-Tree Problem}}, booktitle = {32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024)}, pages = {47:1--47:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-338-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {308}, editor = {Chan, Timothy and Fischer, Johannes and Iacono, John and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-211188}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.47}, annote = {Keywords: incremental optimization, competitive analysis, prize-collecting Steiner-tree} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 308, 32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024)

We study the optimal provision of information for two natural performance measures of queuing systems: throughput and makespan. A set of parallel links (queues) is equipped with deterministic capacities and stochastic offsets where the latter depend on a realized state, and the number of states is assumed to be constant. A continuum of flow particles (agents) arrives at the system at a constant rate. A system operator knows the realization of the state and may (partially) reveal this information via a public signaling scheme to the flow particles. Upon arrival, the flow particles observe the signal issued by the system operator, form an updated belief about the realized state, and decide on which link they use. Inflow into a link exceeding the link’s capacity builds up in a queue that increases the cost (total travel time) on the link. Dynamic inflow rates are in a Bayesian dynamic equilibrium when the expected cost along all links with positive inflow is equal at every point in time and not larger than the expected cost of any unused link. For a given time horizon T, the throughput induced by a signaling scheme is the total volume of flow that leaves the links in the interval [0,T]. The public signaling scheme maximizing the throughput may involve irrational numbers. We provide an additive polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) that approximates the optimal throughput by an arbitrary additive constant ε > 0. The algorithm solves a Lagrangian dual of the signaling problem with the Ellipsoid method whose separation oracle is implemented by a cell decomposition technique. We also provide a multiplicative fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) that does not rely on strong duality and, thus, allows to compute the optimal signals. It uses a different cell decomposition technique together with a piecewise convex under-estimator of the optimal value function. Finally, we consider the makespan of a Bayesian dynamic equilibrium which is defined as the last point in time when a total given value of flow leaves the system. Using a variational inequality argument, we show that full information revelation is a public signaling scheme that minimizes the makespan.

Svenja M. Griesbach, Max Klimm, Philipp Warode, and Theresa Ziemke. Optimizing Throughput and Makespan of Queuing Systems by Information Design. In 32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 308, pp. 62:1-62:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{griesbach_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2024.62, author = {Griesbach, Svenja M. and Klimm, Max and Warode, Philipp and Ziemke, Theresa}, title = {{Optimizing Throughput and Makespan of Queuing Systems by Information Design}}, booktitle = {32nd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2024)}, pages = {62:1--62:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-338-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {308}, editor = {Chan, Timothy and Fischer, Johannes and Iacono, John and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-211336}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.62}, annote = {Keywords: Information Design, Dynamic Flows, Public Signals, Convex Envelope} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

A searcher faces a graph with edge lengths and vertex weights, initially having explored only a given starting vertex. In each step, the searcher adds an edge to the solution that connects an unexplored vertex to an explored vertex. This requires an amount of time equal to the edge length. The goal is to minimize the weighted sum of the exploration times over all vertices. We show that this problem is hard to approximate and provide algorithms with improved approximation guarantees. For the general case, we give a (2e+ε)-approximation for any ε > 0. For the case that all vertices have unit weight, we provide a 2e-approximation. Finally, we provide a PTAS for the case of a Euclidean graph. Previously, for all cases only an 8-approximation was known.

Svenja M. Griesbach, Felix Hommelsheim, Max Klimm, and Kevin Schewior. Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Expanding Search Problem. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 54:1-54:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{griesbach_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54, author = {Griesbach, Svenja M. and Hommelsheim, Felix and Klimm, Max and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Expanding Search Problem}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {54:1--54:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187073}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithm, Expanding Search, Search Problem, Graph Exploration, Traveling Repairperson Problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

An embedding of a graph in a book, called book embedding, consists of a linear ordering of its vertices along the spine of the book and an assignment of its edges to the pages of the book, so that no two edges on the same page cross. The book thickness of a graph is the minimum number of pages over all its book embeddings. For planar graphs, a fundamental result is due to Yannakakis, who proposed an algorithm to compute embeddings of planar graphs in books with four pages. Our main contribution is a technique that generalizes this result to a much wider family of nonplanar graphs, which is characterized by a biconnected skeleton of crossing-free edges whose faces have bounded degree. Notably, this family includes all 1-planar and all optimal 2-planar graphs as subgraphs. We prove that this family of graphs has bounded book thickness, and as a corollary, we obtain the first constant upper bound for the book thickness of optimal 2-planar graphs.

Michael A. Bekos, Giordano Da Lozzo, Svenja M. Griesbach, Martin Gronemann, Fabrizio Montecchiani, and Chrysanthi Raftopoulou. Book Embeddings of Nonplanar Graphs with Small Faces in Few Pages. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 16:1-16:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bekos_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.16, author = {Bekos, Michael A. and Da Lozzo, Giordano and Griesbach, Svenja M. and Gronemann, Martin and Montecchiani, Fabrizio and Raftopoulou, Chrysanthi}, title = {{Book Embeddings of Nonplanar Graphs with Small Faces in Few Pages}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {16:1--16:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121749}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.16}, annote = {Keywords: Book embeddings, Book thickness, Nonplanar graphs, Planar skeleton} }

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