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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 265, 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)

In the Directed Feedback Vertex Set (DFVS) problem, one is given a directed graph G = (V,E) and wants to find a minimum cardinality set S ⊆ V such that G-S is acyclic. DFVS is a fundamental problem in computer science and finds applications in areas such as deadlock detection. The problem was the subject of the 2022 PACE coding challenge. We develop a novel exact algorithm for the problem that is tailored to perform well on instances that are mostly bi-directed. For such instances, we adapt techniques from the well-researched vertex cover problem. Our core idea is an iterative reduction to vertex cover. To this end, we also develop a new reduction rule that reduces the number of not bi-directed edges. With the resulting algorithm, we were able to win third place in the exact track of the PACE challenge. We perform computational experiments and compare the running time to other exact algorithms, in particular to the winning algorithm in PACE. Our experiments show that we outpace the other algorithms on instances that have a low density of uni-directed edges.

Sebastian Angrick, Ben Bals, Katrin Casel, Sarel Cohen, Tobias Friedrich, Niko Hastrich, Theresa Hradilak, Davis Issac, Otto Kißig, Jonas Schmidt, and Leo Wendt. Solving Directed Feedback Vertex Set by Iterative Reduction to Vertex Cover. In 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 265, pp. 10:1-10:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{angrick_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2023.10, author = {Angrick, Sebastian and Bals, Ben and Casel, Katrin and Cohen, Sarel and Friedrich, Tobias and Hastrich, Niko and Hradilak, Theresa and Issac, Davis and Ki{\ss}ig, Otto and Schmidt, Jonas and Wendt, Leo}, title = {{Solving Directed Feedback Vertex Set by Iterative Reduction to Vertex Cover}}, booktitle = {21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)}, pages = {10:1--10:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-279-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {265}, editor = {Georgiadis, Loukas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183602}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.10}, annote = {Keywords: directed feedback vertex set, vertex cover, reduction rules} }

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PACE Solver Description

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)

In this document we describe the techniques we used and implemented for our submission to the Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments Challenge (PACE) 2022. The given problem is Directed Feedback Vertex Set (DFVS), where one is given a directed graph G = (V,E) and wants to find a minimum S ⊆ V such that G-S is acyclic. We approach this problem by first exhaustively applying a set of reduction rules. In order to find a minimum DFVS on the remaining instance, we create and solve a series of Vertex Cover instances.

Sebastian Angrick, Ben Bals, Katrin Casel, Sarel Cohen, Tobias Friedrich, Niko Hastrich, Theresa Hradilak, Davis Issac, Otto Kißig, Jonas Schmidt, and Leo Wendt. PACE Solver Description: Mount Doom - An Exact Solver for Directed Feedback Vertex Set. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 28:1-28:4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{angrick_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.28, author = {Angrick, Sebastian and Bals, Ben and Casel, Katrin and Cohen, Sarel and Friedrich, Tobias and Hastrich, Niko and Hradilak, Theresa and Issac, Davis and Ki{\ss}ig, Otto and Schmidt, Jonas and Wendt, Leo}, title = {{PACE Solver Description: Mount Doom - An Exact Solver for Directed Feedback Vertex Set}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)}, pages = {28:1--28:4}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-260-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {249}, editor = {Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173847}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.28}, annote = {Keywords: directed feedback vertex set, vertex cover, reduction rules} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

We study the problem of multicommodity flow and multicut in treewidth-2 graphs and prove bounds on the multiflow-multicut gap. In particular, we give a primal-dual algorithm for computing multicommodity flow and multicut in treewidth-2 graphs and prove the following approximate max-flow min-cut theorem: given a treewidth-2 graph, there exists a multicommodity flow of value f with congestion 4, and a multicut of capacity c such that c ≤ 20 f. This implies a multiflow-multicut gap of 80 and improves upon the previous best known bounds for such graphs. Our algorithm runs in polynomial time when all the edges have capacity one. Our algorithm is completely combinatorial and builds upon the primal-dual algorithm of Garg, Vazirani and Yannakakis for multicut in trees and the augmenting paths framework of Ford and Fulkerson.

Tobias Friedrich, Davis Issac, Nikhil Kumar, Nadym Mallek, and Ziena Zeif. A Primal-Dual Algorithm for Multicommodity Flows and Multicuts in Treewidth-2 Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 55:1-55:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{friedrich_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55, author = {Friedrich, Tobias and Issac, Davis and Kumar, Nikhil and Mallek, Nadym and Zeif, Ziena}, title = {{A Primal-Dual Algorithm for Multicommodity Flows and Multicuts in Treewidth-2 Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {55:1--55:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171774}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Multicommodity Flow, Multicut} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

A connected partition is a partition of the vertices of a graph into sets that induce connected subgraphs. Such partitions naturally occur in many application areas such as road networks, and image processing. In these settings, it is often desirable to partition into a fixed number of parts of roughly of the same size or weight. The resulting computational problem is called Balanced Connected Partition (BCP). The two classical objectives for BCP are to maximize the weight of the smallest, or minimize the weight of the largest component. We study BCP on c-claw-free graphs, the class of graphs that do not have K_{1,c} as an induced subgraph, and present efficient (c-1)-approximation algorithms for both objectives. In particular, for 3-claw-free graphs, also simply known as claw-free graphs, we obtain a 2-approximation. Due to the claw-freeness of line graphs, this also implies a 2-approximation for the edge-partition version of BCP in general graphs.
A harder connected partition problem arises from demanding a connected partition into k parts that have (possibly) heterogeneous target weights w₁,…,w_k. In the 1970s Győri and Lovász showed that if G is k-connected and the target weights sum to the total size of G, such a partition exists. However, to this day no polynomial algorithm to compute such partitions exists for k > 4. Towards finding such a partition T₁,…, T_k in k-connected graphs for general k, we show how to efficiently compute connected partitions that at least approximately meet the target weights, subject to the mild assumption that each w_i is greater than the weight of the heaviest vertex. In particular, we give a 3-approximation for both the lower and the upper bounded version i.e. we guarantee that each T_i has weight at least (w_i)/3 or that each T_i has weight most 3w_i, respectively. Also, we present a both-side bounded version that produces a connected partition where each T_i has size at least (w_i)/3 and at most max({r,3}) w_i, where r ≥ 1 is the ratio between the largest and smallest value in w₁, … , w_k. In particular for the balanced version, i.e. w₁ = w₂ = , … , = w_k, this gives a partition with 1/3w_i ≤ w(T_i) ≤ 3w_i.

Ralf Borndörfer, Katrin Casel, Davis Issac, Aikaterini Niklanovits, Stephan Schwartz, and Ziena Zeif. Connected k-Partition of k-Connected Graphs and c-Claw-Free Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{borndorfer_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.27, author = {Bornd\"{o}rfer, Ralf and Casel, Katrin and Issac, Davis and Niklanovits, Aikaterini and Schwartz, Stephan and Zeif, Ziena}, title = {{Connected k-Partition of k-Connected Graphs and c-Claw-Free Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147200}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.27}, annote = {Keywords: connected partition, Gy\H{o}ri-Lov\'{a}sz, balanced partition, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We introduce the balanced crown decomposition that captures the structure imposed on graphs by their connected induced subgraphs of a given size. Such subgraphs are a popular modeling tool in various application areas, where the non-local nature of the connectivity condition usually results in very challenging algorithmic tasks. The balanced crown decomposition is a combination of a crown decomposition and a balanced partition which makes it applicable to graph editing as well as graph packing and partitioning problems. We illustrate this by deriving improved approximation algorithms and kernelization for a variety of such problems.
In particular, through this structure, we obtain the first constant-factor approximation for the Balanced Connected Partition (BCP) problem, where the task is to partition a vertex-weighted graph into k connected components of approximately equal weight. We derive a 3-approximation for the two most commonly used objectives of maximizing the weight of the lightest component or minimizing the weight of the heaviest component.

Katrin Casel, Tobias Friedrich, Davis Issac, Aikaterini Niklanovits, and Ziena Zeif. Balanced Crown Decomposition for Connectivity Constraints. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 26:1-26:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{casel_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.26, author = {Casel, Katrin and Friedrich, Tobias and Issac, Davis and Niklanovits, Aikaterini and Zeif, Ziena}, title = {{Balanced Crown Decomposition for Connectivity Constraints}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {26:1--26:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146076}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.26}, annote = {Keywords: crown decomposition, connected partition, balanced partition, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

We develop an FPT algorithm and a compression for the Weighted Edge Clique Partition (WECP) problem, where a graph with n vertices and integer edge weights is given together with an integer k, and the aim is to find k cliques, such that every edge appears in exactly as many cliques as its weight. The problem has been previously only studied in the unweighted version called Edge Clique Partition (ECP), where the edges need to be partitioned into k cliques. It was shown that ECP admits a kernel with k² vertices [Mujuni and Rosamond, 2008], but this kernel does not extend to WECP. The previously fastest algorithm known for ECP has a runtime of 2^𝒪(k²)n^O(1) [Issac, 2019]. For WECP we develop a compression (to a slightly more general problem) with 4^k vertices, and an algorithm with runtime 2^𝒪(k^(3/2)w^(1/2)log(k/w))n^O(1), where w is the maximum edge weight. The latter in particular improves the runtime for ECP to 2^𝒪(k^(3/2)log k)n^O(1).

Andreas Emil Feldmann, Davis Issac, and Ashutosh Rai. Fixed-Parameter Tractability of the Weighted Edge Clique Partition Problem. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 17:1-17:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17, author = {Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Issac, Davis and Rai, Ashutosh}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Tractability of the Weighted Edge Clique Partition Problem}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {17:1--17:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133206}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.17}, annote = {Keywords: Edge Clique Partition, fixed-parameter tractability, kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

Given a graph with colors on its vertices, a path is called a rainbow vertex path if all its internal vertices have distinct colors. We say that the graph is rainbow vertex-connected if there is a rainbow vertex path between every pair of its vertices. We study the problem of deciding whether the vertices of a given graph can be colored with at most k colors so that the graph becomes rainbow vertex-connected. Although edge-colorings have been studied extensively under similar constraints, there are significantly fewer results on the vertex variant that we consider. In particular, its complexity on structured graph classes was explicitly posed as an open question.
We show that the problem remains NP-complete even on bipartite apex graphs and on split graphs. The former can be seen as a first step in the direction of studying the complexity of rainbow coloring on sparse graphs, an open problem which has attracted attention but limited progress. We also give hardness of approximation results for both bipartite and split graphs. To complement the negative results, we show that bipartite permutation graphs, interval graphs, and block graphs can be rainbow vertex-connected optimally in polynomial time.

Pinar Heggernes, Davis Issac, Juho Lauri, Paloma T. Lima, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Rainbow Vertex Coloring Bipartite Graphs and Chordal Graphs. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 83:1-83:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{heggernes_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.83, author = {Heggernes, Pinar and Issac, Davis and Lauri, Juho and Lima, Paloma T. and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan}, title = {{Rainbow Vertex Coloring Bipartite Graphs and Chordal Graphs}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {83:1--83:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.83}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96657}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.83}, annote = {Keywords: Rainbow coloring, graph classes, polynomial-time algorithms, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We study a natural problem in graph sparsification, the Spanning Tree Congestion (STC) problem. Informally, it seeks a spanning tree with no tree-edge routing too many of the original edges.
For any general connected graph with n vertices and m edges, we show that its STC is at most O(sqrt{mn}), which is asymptotically optimal since we also demonstrate graphs with STC at least Omega(sqrt{mn}). We present a polynomial-time algorithm which computes a spanning tree with congestion O(sqrt{mn}* log n). We also present another algorithm for computing a spanning tree with congestion O(sqrt{mn}); this algorithm runs in sub-exponential time when m = omega(n log^2 n).
For achieving the above results, an important intermediate theorem is generalized Györi-Lovász theorem. Chen et al. [Jiangzhuo Chen et al., 2007] gave a non-constructive proof. We give the first elementary and constructive proof with a local search algorithm of running time O^*(4^n). We discuss some consequences of the theorem concerning graph partitioning, which might be of independent interest.
We also show that for any graph which satisfies certain expanding properties, its STC is at most O(n), and a corresponding spanning tree can be computed in polynomial time. We then use this to show that a random graph has STC Theta(n) with high probability.

L. Sunil Chandran, Yun Kuen Cheung, and Davis Issac. Spanning Tree Congestion and Computation of Generalized Györi-Lovász Partition. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chandran_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.32, author = {Chandran, L. Sunil and Cheung, Yun Kuen and Issac, Davis}, title = {{Spanning Tree Congestion and Computation of Generalized Gy\"{o}ri-Lov\'{a}sz Partition}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {32:1--32:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90361}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.32}, annote = {Keywords: Spanning Tree Congestion, Graph Sparsification, Graph Partitioning, Min-Max Graph Partitioning, k-Vertex-Connected Graphs, Gy\"{o}ri-Lov\'{a}sz Theorem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 63, 11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016)

Given a bipartite graph G, we consider the decision problem called BicliqueCover for a fixed positive integer parameter k where we are asked whether the edges of G can be covered with at most k complete bipartite subgraphs (a.k.a. bicliques). In the BicliquePartition problem, we have the additional constraint that each edge should appear in exactly one of the k bicliques. These problems are both known to be NP-complete but fixed parameter tractable. However, the known FPT algorithms have a running time that is doubly exponential in k, and the best known kernel for both problems is exponential in k. We build on this kernel and improve the running time for BicliquePartition to O*(2^{2k^2+k*log(k)+k}) by exploiting a linear algebraic view on this problem. On the other hand, we show that no such improvement is possible for BicliqueCover unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) is false by proving a doubly exponential lower bound on the running time. We achieve this by giving a reduction from 3SAT on n variables to an instance of BicliqueCover with k=O(log(n)). As a further consequence of this reduction, we show that there is no subexponential kernel for BicliqueCover unless P=NP. Finally, we point out the significance of the exponential kernel mentioned above for the design of polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the optimization versions of both problems. That is, we show that it is possible to obtain approximation factors of n/log(n) for both problems, whereas the previous best approximation factor was n/sqrt(log(n)).

Sunil Chandran, Davis Issac, and Andreas Karrenbauer. On the Parameterized Complexity of Biclique Cover and Partition. In 11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 63, pp. 11:1-11:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{chandran_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.11, author = {Chandran, Sunil and Issac, Davis and Karrenbauer, Andreas}, title = {{On the Parameterized Complexity of Biclique Cover and Partition}}, booktitle = {11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016)}, pages = {11:1--11:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-023-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {63}, editor = {Guo, Jiong and Hermelin, Danny}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69293}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.11}, annote = {Keywords: Biclique Cover/Partition, Linear algebra in finite fields, Lower bound} }