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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

This work continues the study of linear error correcting codes against adversarial insertion deletion errors (insdel errors). Previously, the work of Cheng, Guruswami, Haeupler, and Li [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021] showed the existence of asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can correct arbitrarily close to 1 fraction of errors over some constant size alphabet, or achieve rate arbitrarily close to 1/2 even over the binary alphabet. As shown in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021], these bounds are also the best possible. However, known explicit constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021], and subsequent improved constructions by Con, Shpilka, and Tamo [Con et al., 2022] all fall short of meeting these bounds. Over any constant size alphabet, they can only achieve rate < 1/8 or correct < 1/4 fraction of errors; over the binary alphabet, they can only achieve rate < 1/1216 or correct < 1/54 fraction of errors. Apparently, previous techniques face inherent barriers to achieve rate better than 1/4 or correct more than 1/2 fraction of errors.
In this work we give new constructions of such codes that meet these bounds, namely, asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can correct arbitrarily close to 1 fraction of errors over some constant size alphabet, and binary asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can achieve rate arbitrarily close to 1/2. All our constructions are efficiently encodable and decodable. Our constructions are based on a novel approach of code concatenation, which embeds the index information implicitly into codewords. This significantly differs from previous techniques and may be of independent interest. Finally, we also prove the existence of linear concatenated insdel codes with parameters that match random linear codes, and propose a conjecture about linear insdel codes.

Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Zhide Wei, and Yu Zheng. Linear Insertion Deletion Codes in the High-Noise and High-Rate Regimes. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 41:1-41:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41, author = {Cheng, Kuan and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Wei, Zhide and Zheng, Yu}, title = {{Linear Insertion Deletion Codes in the High-Noise and High-Rate Regimes}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {41:1--41:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180931}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41}, annote = {Keywords: Error correcting code, Edit distance, Pseudorandomness, Derandomization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

In all existing encryption systems, the owner of the master secret key has the ability to decrypt all ciphertexts. In this work, we propose a new notion of pre-constrained encryption (PCE) where the owner of the master secret key does not have "full" decryption power. Instead, its decryption power is constrained in a pre-specified manner during the system setup.
We present formal definitions and constructions of PCE, and discuss societal applications and implications to some well-studied cryptographic primitives.

Prabhanjan Ananth, Abhishek Jain, Zhengzhong Jin, and Giulio Malavolta. Pre-Constrained Encryption. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 4:1-4:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ananth_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.4, author = {Ananth, Prabhanjan and Jain, Abhishek and Jin, Zhengzhong and Malavolta, Giulio}, title = {{Pre-Constrained Encryption}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {4:1--4:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156001}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.4}, annote = {Keywords: Advanced encryption systems} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

The edit distance (ED) and longest common subsequence (LCS) are two fundamental problems which quantify how similar two strings are to one another. In this paper, we first consider these problems in the asymmetric streaming model introduced by Andoni, Krauthgamer and Onak [Andoni et al., 2010] (FOCS'10) and Saks and Seshadhri [Saks and Seshadhri, 2013] (SODA'13). In this model we have random access to one string and streaming access the other one. Our main contribution is a constant factor approximation algorithm for ED with memory Õ(n^δ) for any constant δ > 0. In addition to this, we present an upper bound of Õ _ε(√n) on the memory needed to approximate ED or LCS within a factor 1±ε. All our algorithms are deterministic and run in polynomial time in a single pass.
We further study small-space approximation algorithms for ED, LCS, and longest increasing sequence (LIS) in the non-streaming setting. Here, we design algorithms that achieve 1 ± ε approximation for all three problems, where ε > 0 can be any constant and even slightly sub-constant. Our algorithms only use poly-logarithmic space while maintaining a polynomial running time. This significantly improves previous results in terms of space complexity, where all known results need to use space at least Ω(√n). Our algorithms make novel use of triangle inequality and carefully designed recursions to save space, which can be of independent interest.

Kuan Cheng, Alireza Farhadi, MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Aviad Rubinstein, Saeed Seddighin, and Yu Zheng. Streaming and Small Space Approximation Algorithms for Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 54:1-54:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54, author = {Cheng, Kuan and Farhadi, Alireza and Hajiaghayi, MohammadTaghi and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Rubinstein, Aviad and Seddighin, Saeed and Zheng, Yu}, title = {{Streaming and Small Space Approximation Algorithms for Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {54:1--54:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141236}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54}, annote = {Keywords: Edit Distance, Longest Common Subsequence, Longest Increasing Subsequence, Space Efficient Algorithm, Approximation Algorithm} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Document exchange and error correcting codes are two fundamental problems regarding communications. In the first problem, Alice and Bob each holds a string, and the goal is for Alice to send a short sketch to Bob, so that Bob can recover Alice’s string. In the second problem, Alice sends a message with some redundant information to Bob through a channel that can add adversarial errors, and the goal is for Bob to correctly recover the message despite the errors. In both problems, an upper bound is placed on the number of errors between the two strings or that the channel can add, and a major goal is to minimize the size of the sketch or the redundant information. In this paper we focus on deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes.
Both problems have been studied extensively. In the case of Hamming errors (i.e., bit substitutions) and bit erasures, we have explicit constructions with asymptotically optimal parameters. However, other error types are still rather poorly understood. In a recent work [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018], the authors constructed explicit deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes for edit errors with almost optimal parameters. Unfortunately, the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] do not work for other common errors such as block transpositions.
In this paper, we generalize the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] to handle a much larger class of errors. These include bursts of insertions and deletions, as well as block transpositions. Specifically, we consider document exchange and error correcting codes where the total number of block insertions, block deletions, and block transpositions is at most k <= alpha n/log n for some constant 0<alpha<1. In addition, the total number of bits inserted and deleted by the first two kinds of operations is at most t <= beta n for some constant 0<beta<1, where n is the length of Alice’s string or message. We construct explicit, deterministic document exchange protocols with sketch size O((k log n +t) log^2 n/{k log n + t}) and explicit binary error correcting code with O(k log n log log log n+t) redundant bits. As a comparison, the information-theoretic optimum for both problems is Theta(k log n+t). As far as we know, previously there are no known explicit deterministic document exchange protocols in this case, and the best known binary code needs Omega(n) redundant bits even to correct just one block transposition [L. J. Schulman and D. Zuckerman, 1999].

Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, and Ke Wu. Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37, author = {Cheng, Kuan and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Wu, Ke}, title = {{Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {37:1--37:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106137}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37}, annote = {Keywords: Deterministic document exchange, error correcting code, block edit error} }

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