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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

We show that the decision problem of determining whether a given (abstract simplicial) k-complex has a geometric embedding in ℝ^d is complete for the Existential Theory of the Reals for all d ≥ 3 and k ∈ {d-1,d}. Consequently, the problem is polynomial time equivalent to determining whether a polynomial equation system has a real solution and other important problems from various fields related to packing, Nash equilibria, minimum convex covers, the Art Gallery Problem, continuous constraint satisfaction problems, and training neural networks. Moreover, this implies NP-hardness and constitutes the first hardness result for the algorithmic problem of geometric embedding (abstract simplicial) complexes. This complements recent breakthroughs for the computational complexity of piece-wise linear embeddability.

Mikkel Abrahamsen, Linda Kleist, and Tillmann Miltzow. Geometric Embeddability of Complexes Is ∃ℝ-Complete. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 1:1-1:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{abrahamsen_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.1, author = {Abrahamsen, Mikkel and Kleist, Linda and Miltzow, Tillmann}, title = {{Geometric Embeddability of Complexes Is \exists\mathbb{R}-Complete}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {1:1--1:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178518}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.1}, annote = {Keywords: simplicial complex, geometric embedding, linear embedding, hypergraph, recognition, existential theory of the reals} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

We construct families of circles in the plane such that their tangency graphs have arbitrarily large girth and chromatic number. This provides a strong negative answer to Ringel’s circle problem (1959). The proof relies on a (multidimensional) version of Gallai’s theorem with polynomial constraints, which we derive from the Hales-Jewett theorem and which may be of independent interest.

James Davies, Chaya Keller, Linda Kleist, Shakhar Smorodinsky, and Bartosz Walczak. A Solution to Ringel’s Circle Problem. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 33:1-33:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{davies_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.33, author = {Davies, James and Keller, Chaya and Kleist, Linda and Smorodinsky, Shakhar and Walczak, Bartosz}, title = {{A Solution to Ringel’s Circle Problem}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {33:1--33:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160413}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.33}, annote = {Keywords: circle arrangement, chromatic number, Gallai’s theorem, polynomial method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

We investigate the computational complexity of computing the Hausdorff distance. Specifically, we show that the decision problem of whether the Hausdorff distance of two semi-algebraic sets is bounded by a given threshold is complete for the complexity class ∀∃_<ℝ. This implies that the problem is NP-, co-NP-, ∃ℝ- and ∀ℝ-hard.

Paul Jungeblut, Linda Kleist, and Tillmann Miltzow. The Complexity of the Hausdorff Distance. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 48:1-48:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{jungeblut_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.48, author = {Jungeblut, Paul and Kleist, Linda and Miltzow, Tillmann}, title = {{The Complexity of the Hausdorff Distance}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {48:1--48:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160567}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.48}, annote = {Keywords: Hausdorff Distance, Semi-Algebraic Set, Existential Theory of the Reals, Universal Existential Theory of the Reals, Complexity Theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)

We study whether a given graph can be realized as an adjacency graph of the polygonal cells of a polyhedral surface in ℝ³. We show that every graph is realizable as a polyhedral surface with arbitrary polygonal cells, and that this is not true if we require the cells to be convex. In particular, if the given graph contains K_5, K_{5,81}, or any nonplanar 3-tree as a subgraph, no such realization exists. On the other hand, all planar graphs, K_{4,4}, and K_{3,5} can be realized with convex cells. The same holds for any subdivision of any graph where each edge is subdivided at least once, and, by a result from McMullen et al. (1983), for any hypercube.
Our results have implications on the maximum density of graphs describing polyhedral surfaces with convex cells: The realizability of hypercubes shows that the maximum number of edges over all realizable n-vertex graphs is in Ω(n log n). From the non-realizability of K_{5,81}, we obtain that any realizable n-vertex graph has 𝒪(n^{9/5}) edges. As such, these graphs can be considerably denser than planar graphs, but not arbitrarily dense.

Elena Arseneva, Linda Kleist, Boris Klemz, Maarten Löffler, André Schulz, Birgit Vogtenhuber, and Alexander Wolff. Adjacency Graphs of Polyhedral Surfaces. In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 11:1-11:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{arseneva_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.11, author = {Arseneva, Elena and Kleist, Linda and Klemz, Boris and L\"{o}ffler, Maarten and Schulz, Andr\'{e} and Vogtenhuber, Birgit and Wolff, Alexander}, title = {{Adjacency Graphs of Polyhedral Surfaces}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)}, pages = {11:1--11:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-184-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {189}, editor = {Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138107}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.11}, annote = {Keywords: polyhedral complexes, realizability, contact representation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)

We provide a tight result for a fundamental problem arising from packing squares into a circular container: The critical density of packing squares into a disk is δ = 8/(5π)≈ 0.509. This implies that any set of (not necessarily equal) squares of total area A ≤ 8/5 can always be packed into a disk with radius 1; in contrast, for any ε > 0 there are sets of squares of total area 8/5+ε that cannot be packed, even if squares may be rotated. This settles the last (and arguably, most elusive) case of packing circular or square objects into a circular or square container: The critical densities for squares in a square (1/2), circles in a square (π/(3+2√2) ≈ 0.539) and circles in a circle (1/2) have already been established, making use of recursive subdivisions of a square container into pieces bounded by straight lines, or the ability to use recursive arguments based on similarity of objects and container; neither of these approaches can be applied when packing squares into a circular container. Our proof uses a careful manual analysis, complemented by a computer-assisted part that is based on interval arithmetic. Beyond the basic mathematical importance, our result is also useful as a blackbox lemma for the analysis of recursive packing algorithms. At the same time, our approach showcases the power of a general framework for computer-assisted proofs, based on interval arithmetic.

Sándor P. Fekete, Vijaykrishna Gurunathan, Kushagra Juneja, Phillip Keldenich, Linda Kleist, and Christian Scheffer. Packing Squares into a Disk with Optimal Worst-Case Density. In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 36:1-36:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{fekete_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.36, author = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Gurunathan, Vijaykrishna and Juneja, Kushagra and Keldenich, Phillip and Kleist, Linda and Scheffer, Christian}, title = {{Packing Squares into a Disk with Optimal Worst-Case Density}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)}, pages = {36:1--36:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-184-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {189}, editor = {Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138356}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.36}, annote = {Keywords: Square packing, packing density, tight worst-case bound, interval arithmetic, approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 190, 19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021)

We consider a spectrum of geometric optimization problems motivated by contexts such as satellite communication and astrophysics. In the problem Minimum Scan Cover with Angular Costs, we are given a graph G that is embedded in Euclidean space. The edges of G need to be scanned, i.e., probed from both of their vertices. In order to scan their edge, two vertices need to face each other; changing the heading of a vertex incurs some cost in terms of energy or rotation time that is proportional to the corresponding rotation angle. Our goal is to compute schedules that minimize the following objective functions: (i) in Minimum Makespan Scan Cover (MSC-MS), this is the time until all edges are scanned; (ii) in Minimum Total Energy Scan Cover (MSC-TE), the sum of all rotation angles; (iii) in Minimum Bottleneck Energy Scan Cover (MSC-BE), the maximum total rotation angle at one vertex.
Previous theoretical work on MSC-MS revealed a close connection to graph coloring and the cut cover problem, leading to hardness and approximability results. In this paper, we present polynomial-time algorithms for 1D instances of MSC-TE and MSC-BE, but NP-hardness proofs for bipartite 2D instances. For bipartite graphs in 2D, we also give 2-approximation algorithms for both MSC-TE and MSC-BE. Most importantly, we provide a comprehensive study of practical methods for all three problems. We compare three different mixed-integer programming and two constraint programming approaches, and show how to compute provably optimal solutions for geometric instances with up to 300 edges. Additionally, we compare the performance of different meta-heuristics for even larger instances.

Kevin Buchin, Sándor P. Fekete, Alexander Hill, Linda Kleist, Irina Kostitsyna, Dominik Krupke, Roel Lambers, and Martijn Struijs. Minimum Scan Cover and Variants - Theory and Experiments. In 19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 190, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2021.4, author = {Buchin, Kevin and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Hill, Alexander and Kleist, Linda and Kostitsyna, Irina and Krupke, Dominik and Lambers, Roel and Struijs, Martijn}, title = {{Minimum Scan Cover and Variants - Theory and Experiments}}, booktitle = {19th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2021)}, pages = {4:1--4:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-185-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {190}, editor = {Coudert, David and Natale, Emanuele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2021.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137765}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2021.4}, annote = {Keywords: Graph scanning, angular metric, makespan, energy, bottleneck, complexity, approximation, algorithm engineering, mixed-integer programming, constraint programming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

We provide a comprehensive study of a natural geometric optimization problem motivated by questions in the context of satellite communication and astrophysics. In the problem Minimum Scan Cover with Angular Costs (msc), we are given a graph G that is embedded in Euclidean space. The edges of G need to be scanned, i.e., probed from both of their vertices. In order to scan their edge, two vertices need to face each other; changing the heading of a vertex takes some time proportional to the corresponding turn angle. Our goal is to minimize the time until all scans are completed, i.e., to compute a schedule of minimum makespan.
We show that msc is closely related to both graph coloring and the minimum (directed and undirected) cut cover problem; in particular, we show that the minimum scan time for instances in 1D and 2D lies in Θ(log χ(G)), while for 3D the minimum scan time is not upper bounded by χ(G). We use this relationship to prove that the existence of a constant-factor approximation implies P=NP, even for one-dimensional instances. In 2D, we show that it is NP-hard to approximate a minimum scan cover within less than a factor of 3/2, even for bipartite graphs; conversely, we present a 9/2-approximation algorithm for this scenario. Generally, we give an O(c)-approximation for k-colored graphs with k ≤ χ(G)^c. For general metric cost functions, we provide approximation algorithms whose performance guarantee depend on the arboricity of the graph.

Sándor P. Fekete, Linda Kleist, and Dominik Krupke. Minimum Scan Cover with Angular Transition Costs. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 43:1-43:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fekete_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.43, author = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Kleist, Linda and Krupke, Dominik}, title = {{Minimum Scan Cover with Angular Transition Costs}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {43:1--43:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122014}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.43}, annote = {Keywords: Graph scanning, graph coloring, angular metric, complexity, approximation, scheduling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

The flip graph of triangulations has as vertices all triangulations of a convex n-gon, and an edge between any two triangulations that differ in exactly one edge. An r-rainbow cycle in this graph is a cycle in which every inner edge of the triangulation appears exactly r times. This notion of a rainbow cycle extends in a natural way to other flip graphs. In this paper we investigate the existence of r-rainbow cycles for three different flip graphs on classes of geometric objects: the aforementioned flip graph of triangulations of a convex n-gon, the flip graph of plane spanning trees on an arbitrary set of n points, and the flip graph of non-crossing perfect matchings on a set of n points in convex position. In addition, we consider two flip graphs on classes of non-geometric objects: the flip graph of permutations of {1,2,...,n } and the flip graph of k-element subsets of {1,2,...,n }. In each of the five settings, we prove the existence and non-existence of rainbow cycles for different values of r, n and k.

Stefan Felsner, Linda Kleist, Torsten Mütze, and Leon Sering. Rainbow Cycles in Flip Graphs. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 38:1-38:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{felsner_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.38, author = {Felsner, Stefan and Kleist, Linda and M\"{u}tze, Torsten and Sering, Leon}, title = {{Rainbow Cycles in Flip Graphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {38:1--38:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87514}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.38}, annote = {Keywords: flip graph, cycle, rainbow, Gray code, triangulation, spanning tree, matching, permutation, subset, combination} }