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Documents authored by Kopinsky, Justin


Document
Recursed Is Not Recursive: A Jarring Result

Authors: Erik D. Demaine, Justin Kopinsky, and Jayson Lynch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)


Abstract
Recursed is a 2D puzzle platform video game featuring "treasure chests" that, when jumped into, instantiate a room that can later be exited (similar to function calls), optionally generating a "jar" that returns back to that room (similar to continuations). We prove that Recursed is RE-complete and thus undecidable (not recursive) by a reduction from the Post Correspondence Problem. Our reduction is "practical": the reduction from PCP results in fully playable levels that abide by all constraints governing levels (including the 15 × 20 room size) designed for the main game. Our reduction is also "efficient": a Turing machine can be simulated by a Recursed level whose size is linear in the encoding size of the Turing machine and whose solution length is polynomial in the running time of the Turing machine.

Cite as

Erik D. Demaine, Justin Kopinsky, and Jayson Lynch. Recursed Is Not Recursive: A Jarring Result. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 50:1-50:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.50,
  author =	{Demaine, Erik D. and Kopinsky, Justin and Lynch, Jayson},
  title =	{{Recursed Is Not Recursive: A Jarring Result}},
  booktitle =	{31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-173-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{181},
  editor =	{Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133940},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: Computational Complexity, Undecidable, Video Games}
}
Document
Who witnesses The Witness? Finding witnesses in The Witness is hard and sometimes impossible

Authors: Zachary Abel, Jeffrey Bosboom, Erik D. Demaine, Linus Hamilton, Adam Hesterberg, Justin Kopinsky, Jayson Lynch, and Mikhail Rudoy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 100, 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)


Abstract
We analyze the computational complexity of the many types of pencil-and-paper-style puzzles featured in the 2016 puzzle video game The Witness. In all puzzles, the goal is to draw a path in a rectangular grid graph from a start vertex to a destination vertex. The different puzzle types place different constraints on the path: preventing some edges from being visited (broken edges); forcing some edges or vertices to be visited (hexagons); forcing some cells to have certain numbers of incident path edges (triangles); or forcing the regions formed by the path to be partially monochromatic (squares), have exactly two special cells (stars), or be singly covered by given shapes (polyominoes) and/or negatively counting shapes (antipolyominoes). We show that any one of these clue types (except the first) is enough to make path finding NP-complete ("witnesses exist but are hard to find"), even for rectangular boards. Furthermore, we show that a final clue type (antibody), which necessarily "cancels" the effect of another clue in the same region, makes path finding Sigma_2-complete ("witnesses do not exist"), even with a single antibody (combined with many anti/polyominoes), and the problem gets no harder with many antibodies.

Cite as

Zachary Abel, Jeffrey Bosboom, Erik D. Demaine, Linus Hamilton, Adam Hesterberg, Justin Kopinsky, Jayson Lynch, and Mikhail Rudoy. Who witnesses The Witness? Finding witnesses in The Witness is hard and sometimes impossible. In 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 100, pp. 3:1-3:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{abel_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2018.3,
  author =	{Abel, Zachary and Bosboom, Jeffrey and Demaine, Erik D. and Hamilton, Linus and Hesterberg, Adam and Kopinsky, Justin and Lynch, Jayson and Rudoy, Mikhail},
  title =	{{Who witnesses The Witness? Finding witnesses in The Witness is hard and sometimes impossible}},
  booktitle =	{9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-067-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{100},
  editor =	{Ito, Hiro and Leonardi, Stefano and Pagli, Linda and Prencipe, Giuseppe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87944},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: video games, puzzles, hardness}
}
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