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Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

For fixed h >= 2, we consider the task of adding to a graph G a set of weighted shortcut edges on the same vertex set, such that the length of a shortest h-hop path between any pair of vertices in the augmented graph is exactly the same as the original distance between these vertices in G. A set of shortcut edges with this property is called an exact h-hopset and may be applied in processing distance queries on graph G. In particular, a 2-hopset directly corresponds to a distributed distance oracle known as a hub labeling. In this work, we explore centralized distance oracles based on 3-hopsets and display their advantages in several practical scenarios. In particular, for graphs of constant highway dimension, and more generally for graphs of constant skeleton dimension, we show that 3-hopsets require exponentially fewer shortcuts per node than any previously described distance oracle, and also offer a speedup in query time when compared to simple oracles based on a direct application of 2-hopsets. Finally, we consider the problem of computing minimum-size h-hopset (for any h >= 2) for a given graph G, showing a polylogarithmic-factor approximation for the case of unique shortest path graphs. When h=3, for a given bound on the space used by the distance oracle, we provide a construction of hopset achieving polylog approximation both for space and query time compared to the optimal 3-hopset oracle given the space bound.

Siddharth Gupta, Adrian Kosowski, and Laurent Viennot. Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 143:1-143:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Kosowski, Adrian and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {143:1--143:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107199}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, annote = {Keywords: Hopsets, Distance Oracles, Graph Algorithms, Data Structures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We consider the following generalization of the binary search problem. A search strategy is required to locate an unknown target node t in a given tree T. Upon querying a node v of the tree, the strategy receives as a reply an indication of the connected component of T\{v} containing the target t. The cost of querying each node is given by a known non-negative weight function, and the considered objective is to minimize the total query cost for a worst-case choice of the target.
Designing an optimal strategy for a weighted tree search instance is known to be strongly NP-hard, in contrast to the unweighted variant of the problem which can be solved optimally in linear time. Here, we show that weighted tree search admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme (QPTAS): for any 0 < epsilon < 1, there exists a (1+epsilon)-approximation strategy with a computation time of n^O(log n / epsilon^2). Thus, the problem is not APX-hard, unless NP is contained in DTIME(n^O(log n)). By applying a generic reduction, we obtain as a corollary that the studied problem admits a polynomial-time O(sqrt(log n))-approximation.
This improves previous tilde-O(log n)-approximation approaches, where the tilde-O-notation disregards O(poly log log n)-factors.

Dariusz Dereniowski, Adrian Kosowski, Przemyslaw Uznanski, and Mengchuan Zou. Approximation Strategies for Generalized Binary Search in Weighted Trees. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 84:1-84:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Kosowski, Adrian and Uznanski, Przemyslaw and Zou, Mengchuan}, title = {{Approximation Strategies for Generalized Binary Search in Weighted Trees}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {84:1--84:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74507}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.84}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithm, Adaptive Algorithm, Graph Search, Binary Search, Vertex Ranking, Trees} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

We derive several new results on multiple random walks on "low dimensional" graphs.
First, inspired by an example of a weighted random walk on a path of three vertices given by Efremenko and Reingold, we prove the following dichotomy: as the path length n tends to infinity, we have a super-linear speed-up w.r.t. the cover time if and only if the number of walks k is equal to 2. An important ingredient of our proofs is the use of a continuous-time analogue of multiple random walks, which might be of independent interest. Finally, we also present the first tight bounds on the speed-up of the cover time for any d-dimensional grid with d >= 2 being an arbitrary constant, and reveal a sharp transition between linear and logarithmic speed-up.

Andrej Ivaskovic, Adrian Kosowski, Dominik Pajak, and Thomas Sauerwald. Multiple Random Walks on Paths and Grids. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 44:1-44:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{ivaskovic_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.44, author = {Ivaskovic, Andrej and Kosowski, Adrian and Pajak, Dominik and Sauerwald, Thomas}, title = {{Multiple Random Walks on Paths and Grids}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {44:1--44:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.44}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69897}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.44}, annote = {Keywords: random walks, randomized algorithms, parallel computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

The rotor-router mechanism was introduced as a deterministic alternative to the random walk in undirected graphs. In this model, a set of k identical walkers is deployed in parallel, starting from a chosen subset of nodes, and moving around the graph in synchronous steps. During the process, each node maintains a cyclic ordering of its outgoing arcs, and successively propagates walkers which visit it along its outgoing arcs in round-robin fashion, according to the fixed ordering.
We consider the cover time of such a system, i.e., the number of steps after which each node has been visited by at least one walk, regardless of the starting locations of the walks. In the case of k=1, [Yanovski et al., 2003] and [Bampas et al., 2009] showed that a single walk achieves a cover time of exactly Theta(mD) for any n-node graph with m edges and diameter D, and that the walker eventually stabilizes to a traversal of an Eulerian circuit on the set of all directed edges of the graph. For k>1 parallel walks, no similar structural behaviour can be observed.
In this work we provide tight bounds on the cover time of k parallel rotor walks in a graph. We show that this cover time is at most (mD/log(k)) and at least Theta(mD/k) for any graph, which corresponds to a speedup of between Theta(log(k)) and Theta(k) with respect to the cover time of a single walk. Both of these extremal values of speedup are achieved for some graph classes. Our results hold for up to a polynomially large number of walks, k=O(poly(n)).

Dariusz Dereniowski, Adrian Kosowski, Dominik Pajak, and Przemyslaw Uznanski. Bounds on the Cover Time of Parallel Rotor Walks. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 263-275, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{dereniowski_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263, author = {Dereniowski, Dariusz and Kosowski, Adrian and Pajak, Dominik and Uznanski, Przemyslaw}, title = {{Bounds on the Cover Time of Parallel Rotor Walks}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {263--275}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44637}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.263}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed graph exploration, Rotor-Router, Collaborative robots, Parallel random walks, Derandomization} }