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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Relational problems (those with many possible valid outputs) are different from decision problems, but it is easy to forget just how different. This paper initiates the study of FBQP/qpoly, the class of relational problems solvable in quantum polynomial-time with the help of polynomial-sized quantum advice, along with its analogues for deterministic and randomized computation (FP, FBPP) and advice (/poly, /rpoly).
Our first result is that FBQP/qpoly ≠ FBQP/poly, unconditionally, with no oracle - a striking contrast with what we know about the analogous decision classes. The proof repurposes the separation between quantum and classical one-way communication complexities due to Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. We discuss how this separation raises the prospect of near-term experiments to demonstrate "quantum information supremacy," a form of quantum supremacy that would not depend on unproved complexity assumptions.
Our second result is that FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly - that is, Adleman’s Theorem fails for relational problems - unless PSPACE ⊂ NP/poly. Our proof uses IP = PSPACE and time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. On the other hand, we show that proving FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly will be hard, as it implies a superpolynomial circuit lower bound for PromiseBPEXP.
We prove the following further results:
- Unconditionally, FP ≠ FBPP and FP/poly ≠ FBPP/poly (even when these classes are carefully defined).
- FBPP/poly = FBPP/rpoly (and likewise for FBQP). For sampling problems, by contrast, SampBPP/poly ≠ SampBPP/rpoly (and likewise for SampBQP).

Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer. A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Buhrman, Harry and Kretschmer, William}, title = {{A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {1:1--1:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195290}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1}, annote = {Keywords: Relational problems, quantum advice, randomized advice, FBQP, FBPP} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)

We prove that for any n-qubit unitary transformation U and for any r = 2^{o(n / log n)}, there exists a quantum circuit to implement U^{⊗ r} with at most O(4ⁿ) gates. This asymptotically equals the number of gates needed to implement just a single copy of a worst-case U. We also establish analogous results for quantum states and diagonal unitary transformations. Our techniques are based on the work of Uhlig [Math. Notes 1974], who proved a similar mass production theorem for Boolean functions.

William Kretschmer. Quantum Mass Production Theorems. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 10:1-10:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kretschmer:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.10, author = {Kretschmer, William}, title = {{Quantum Mass Production Theorems}}, booktitle = {18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)}, pages = {10:1--10:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-283-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {266}, editor = {Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183206}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.10}, annote = {Keywords: mass production, quantum circuit synthesis, quantum circuit complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We show that quantum states with "low stabilizer complexity" can be efficiently distinguished from Haar-random. Specifically, given an n-qubit pure state |ψ⟩, we give an efficient algorithm that distinguishes whether |ψ⟩ is (i) Haar-random or (ii) a state with stabilizer fidelity at least 1/k (i.e., has fidelity at least 1/k with some stabilizer state), promised that one of these is the case. With black-box access to |ψ⟩, our algorithm uses O(k^{12} log(1/δ)) copies of |ψ⟩ and O(n k^{12} log(1/δ)) time to succeed with probability at least 1-δ, and, with access to a state preparation unitary for |ψ⟩ (and its inverse), O(k³ log(1/δ)) queries and O(n k³ log(1/δ)) time suffice.
As a corollary, we prove that ω(log(n)) T-gates are necessary for any Clifford+T circuit to prepare computationally pseudorandom quantum states, a first-of-its-kind lower bound.

Sabee Grewal, Vishnu Iyer, William Kretschmer, and Daniel Liang. Low-Stabilizer-Complexity Quantum States Are Not Pseudorandom. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 64:1-64:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{grewal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.64, author = {Grewal, Sabee and Iyer, Vishnu and Kretschmer, William and Liang, Daniel}, title = {{Low-Stabilizer-Complexity Quantum States Are Not Pseudorandom}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {64:1--64:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.64}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175670}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.64}, annote = {Keywords: Pseudorandom quantum states, Clifford + T, Haar random, Bell sampling, stabilizer formalism, stabilizer extent, stabilizer fidelity, learning theory, complexity theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

One can fix the randomness used by a randomized algorithm, but there is no analogous notion of fixing the quantumness used by a quantum algorithm. Underscoring this fundamental difference, we show that, in the black-box setting, the behavior of quantum polynomial-time (BQP) can be remarkably decoupled from that of classical complexity classes like NP. Specifically:
- There exists an oracle relative to which NP^{BQP} ⊄ BQP^{PH}, resolving a 2005 problem of Fortnow. As a corollary, there exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP but BQP ≠ QCMA.
- Conversely, there exists an oracle relative to which BQP^{NP} ⊄ PH^{BQP}.
- Relative to a random oracle, PP is not contained in the "QMA hierarchy" QMA^{QMA^{QMA^{⋯}}}.
- Relative to a random oracle, Σ_{k+1}^𝖯 ⊄ BQP^{Σ_k^𝖯} for every k.
- There exists an oracle relative to which BQP = P^#P and yet PH is infinite. (By contrast, relative to all oracles, if NP ⊆ BPP, then PH collapses.)
- There exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP ≠ BQP = 𝖯^#P.
To achieve these results, we build on the 2018 achievement by Raz and Tal of an oracle relative to which BQP ⊄ PH, and associated results about the Forrelation problem. We also introduce new tools that might be of independent interest. These include a "quantum-aware" version of the random restriction method, a concentration theorem for the block sensitivity of AC⁰ circuits, and a (provable) analogue of the Aaronson-Ambainis Conjecture for sparse oracles.

Scott Aaronson, DeVon Ingram, and William Kretschmer. The Acrobatics of BQP. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Ingram, DeVon and Kretschmer, William}, title = {{The Acrobatics of BQP}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165820}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: BQP, Forrelation, oracle separations, Polynomial Hierarchy, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 197, 16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021)

We construct a quantum oracle relative to which BQP = QMA but cryptographic pseudorandom quantum states and pseudorandom unitary transformations exist, a counterintuitive result in light of the fact that pseudorandom states can be "broken" by quantum Merlin-Arthur adversaries. We explain how this nuance arises as the result of a distinction between algorithms that operate on quantum and classical inputs. On the other hand, we show that some computational complexity assumption is needed to construct pseudorandom states, by proving that pseudorandom states do not exist if BQP = PP. We discuss implications of these results for cryptography, complexity theory, and quantum tomography.

William Kretschmer. Quantum Pseudorandomness and Classical Complexity. In 16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 197, pp. 2:1-2:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{kretschmer:LIPIcs.TQC.2021.2, author = {Kretschmer, William}, title = {{Quantum Pseudorandomness and Classical Complexity}}, booktitle = {16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021)}, pages = {2:1--2:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-198-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {197}, editor = {Hsieh, Min-Hsiu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2021.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-139975}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2021.2}, annote = {Keywords: pseudorandom quantum states, quantum Merlin-Arthur} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

A leading proposal for verifying near-term quantum supremacy experiments on noisy random quantum circuits is linear cross-entropy benchmarking. For a quantum circuit C on n qubits and a sample z ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, the benchmark involves computing |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|², i.e. the probability of measuring z from the output distribution of C on the all zeros input. Under a strong conjecture about the classical hardness of estimating output probabilities of quantum circuits, no polynomial-time classical algorithm given C can output a string z such that |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² is substantially larger than 1/(2ⁿ) (Aaronson and Gunn, 2019). On the other hand, for a random quantum circuit C, sampling z from the output distribution of C achieves |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² ≈ 2/(2ⁿ) on average (Arute et al., 2019).
In analogy with the Tsirelson inequality from quantum nonlocal correlations, we ask: can a polynomial-time quantum algorithm do substantially better than 2/(2ⁿ)? We study this question in the query (or black box) model, where the quantum algorithm is given oracle access to C. We show that, for any ε ≥ 1/poly(n), outputting a sample z such that |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² ≥ (2 + ε)/2ⁿ on average requires at least Ω((2^{n/4})/poly(n)) queries to C, but not more than O (2^{n/3}) queries to C, if C is either a Haar-random n-qubit unitary, or a canonical state preparation oracle for a Haar-random n-qubit state. We also show that when C samples from the Fourier distribution of a random Boolean function, the naive algorithm that samples from C is the optimal 1-query algorithm for maximizing |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² on average.

William Kretschmer. The Quantum Supremacy Tsirelson Inequality. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 13:1-13:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{kretschmer:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13, author = {Kretschmer, William}, title = {{The Quantum Supremacy Tsirelson Inequality}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {13:1--13:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135524}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13}, annote = {Keywords: quantum supremacy, quantum query complexity, random circuit sampling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

We study quantum algorithms that are given access to trusted and untrusted quantum witnesses. We establish strong limitations of such algorithms, via new techniques based on Laurent polynomials (i.e., polynomials with positive and negative integer exponents). Specifically, we resolve the complexity of approximate counting, the problem of multiplicatively estimating the size of a nonempty set S ⊆ [N], in two natural generalizations of quantum query complexity.
Our first result holds in the standard Quantum Merlin - Arthur (QMA) setting, in which a quantum algorithm receives an untrusted quantum witness. We show that, if the algorithm makes T quantum queries to S, and also receives an (untrusted) m-qubit quantum witness, then either m = Ω(|S|) or T = Ω(√{N/|S|}). This is optimal, matching the straightforward protocols where the witness is either empty, or specifies all the elements of S. As a corollary, this resolves the open problem of giving an oracle separation between SBP, the complexity class that captures approximate counting, and QMA.
In our second result, we ask what if, in addition to a membership oracle for S, a quantum algorithm is also given "QSamples" - i.e., copies of the state |S⟩ = 1/√|S| ∑_{i ∈ S} |i⟩ - or even access to a unitary transformation that enables QSampling? We show that, even then, the algorithm needs either Θ(√{N/|S|}) queries or else Θ(min{|S|^{1/3},√{N/|S|}}) QSamples or accesses to the unitary.
Our lower bounds in both settings make essential use of Laurent polynomials, but in different ways.

Scott Aaronson, Robin Kothari, William Kretschmer, and Justin Thaler. Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 7:1-7:47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Kothari, Robin and Kretschmer, William and Thaler, Justin}, title = {{Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:47}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125593}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate counting, Laurent polynomials, QSampling, query complexity} }