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Documents authored by Kritikakou, Angeliki


Document
Impact of Transient Faults on Timing Behavior and Mitigation with Near-Zero WCET Overhead

Authors: Pegdwende Romaric Nikiema, Angeliki Kritikakou, Marcello Traiola, and Olivier Sentieys

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 262, 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)


Abstract
As time-critical systems require timing guarantees, Worst-Case Execution Times (WCET) have to be employed. However, WCET estimation methods usually assume fault-free hardware. If proper actions are not taken, such fault-free WCET approaches become unsafe, when faults impact the hardware during execution. The majority of approaches, dealing with hardware faults, address the impact of faults on the functional behavior of an application, i.e., denial of service and binary correctness. Few approaches address the impact of faults on the application timing behavior, i.e., time to finish the application, and target faults occurring in memories. However, as the transistor size in modern technologies is significantly reduced, faults in cores cannot be considered negligible anymore. This work shows that faults not only affect the functional behavior, but they can have a significant impact on the timing behavior of applications. To expose the overall impact of faults, we enhance vulnerability analysis to include not only functional, but also timing correctness, and show that faults impact WCET estimations. As common techniques to deal with faults, such as watchdog timers and re-execution, have large timing overhead for error detection and correction, we propose a mechanism with near-zero and bounded timing overhead. A RISC-V core is used as a case study. The obtained results show that faults can lead up to almost 700% increase in the maximum observed execution time between fault-free and faulty execution without protection, affecting the WCET estimations. On the contrary, the proposed mechanism is able to restore fault-free WCET estimations with a bounded overhead of 2 execution cycles.

Cite as

Pegdwende Romaric Nikiema, Angeliki Kritikakou, Marcello Traiola, and Olivier Sentieys. Impact of Transient Faults on Timing Behavior and Mitigation with Near-Zero WCET Overhead. In 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 262, pp. 15:1-15:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{nikiema_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.15,
  author =	{Nikiema, Pegdwende Romaric and Kritikakou, Angeliki and Traiola, Marcello and Sentieys, Olivier},
  title =	{{Impact of Transient Faults on Timing Behavior and Mitigation with Near-Zero WCET Overhead}},
  booktitle =	{35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-280-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{262},
  editor =	{Papadopoulos, Alessandro V.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180445},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Transient faults, Timing impact, Near-zero WCET error detection and correction, Vulnerability analysis}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter - ECRTS 2022 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Preface, Artifact Evaluation Committee

Authors: Angeliki Kritikakou and Matthias Becker

Published in: DARTS, Volume 8, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)


Abstract
Front Matter - ECRTS 2022 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Preface, Artifact Evaluation Committee

Cite as

Angeliki Kritikakou and Matthias Becker. Front Matter - ECRTS 2022 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Preface, Artifact Evaluation Committee. In Special Issue of the 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 0:i-0:x, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@Article{kritikakou_et_al:DARTS.8.1.0,
  author =	{Kritikakou, Angeliki and Becker, Matthias},
  title =	{{Front Matter - ECRTS 2022 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Preface, Artifact Evaluation Committee}},
  pages =	{0:i--0:x},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Artifacts Series},
  ISSN =	{2509-8195},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{8},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Kritikakou, Angeliki and Becker, Matthias},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.8.1.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164967},
  doi =		{10.4230/DARTS.8.1.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter - ECRTS 2022 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Preface, Artifact Evaluation Committee}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter - ECRTS 2021 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Artifact Evaluation Committee

Authors: Alessandro Biondi and Angeliki Kritikakou

Published in: DARTS, Volume 7, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 33rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2021)


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Alessandro Biondi and Angeliki Kritikakou. Front Matter - ECRTS 2021 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Artifact Evaluation Committee. In Special Issue of the 33rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2021). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 0:i-0:x, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@Article{biondi_et_al:DARTS.7.1.0,
  author =	{Biondi, Alessandro and Kritikakou, Angeliki},
  title =	{{Front Matter - ECRTS 2021 Artifacts, Table of Contents, Artifact Evaluation Committee}},
  pages =	{0:i--0:x},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Artifacts Series},
  ISSN =	{2509-8195},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{7},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Biondi, Alessandro and Kritikakou, Angeliki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.7.1.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-139794},
  doi =		{10.4230/DARTS.7.1.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Dynamic Interference-Sensitive Run-time Adaptation of Time-Triggered Schedules

Authors: Stefanos Skalistis and Angeliki Kritikakou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 165, 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
Over-approximated Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) estimations for multi-cores lead to safe, but over-provisioned, systems and underutilized cores. To reduce WCET pessimism, interference-sensitive WCET (isWCET) estimations are used. Although they provide tighter WCET bounds, they are valid only for a specific schedule solution. Existing approaches have to maintain this isWCET schedule solution at run-time, via time-triggered execution, in order to be safe. Hence, any earlier execution of tasks, enabled by adapting the isWCET schedule solution, is not possible. In this paper, we present a dynamic approach that safely adapts isWCET schedules during execution, by relaxing or completely removing isWCET schedule dependencies, depending on the progress of each core. In this way, an earlier task execution is enabled, creating time slack that can be used by safety-critical and mixed-criticality systems to provide higher Quality-of-Services or execute other best-effort applications. The Response-Time Analysis (RTA) of the proposed approach is presented, showing that although the approach is dynamic, it is fully predictable with bounded WCET. To support our contribution, we evaluate the behavior and the scalability of the proposed approach for different application types and execution configurations on the 8-core Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 platform, obtaining significant performance improvements compared to static approaches.

Cite as

Stefanos Skalistis and Angeliki Kritikakou. Dynamic Interference-Sensitive Run-time Adaptation of Time-Triggered Schedules. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 4:1-4:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{skalistis_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.4,
  author =	{Skalistis, Stefanos and Kritikakou, Angeliki},
  title =	{{Dynamic Interference-Sensitive Run-time Adaptation of Time-Triggered Schedules}},
  booktitle =	{32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-152-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{165},
  editor =	{V\"{o}lp, Marcus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123673},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Worst-Case Execution Time, Interference-sensitive, Run-time Adaptation, Time-Triggered, Response Time Analysis, Multi-cores}
}
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