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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

The theory of proof systems in general, and interactive proofs in particular, has been immensely influential. Such proof systems allow a prover to convince a verifier whether a given statement is true or not - namely to solve a decision problem. In this work we initiate a study of interactive proofs for search problems.
More precisely, we consider a setting in which a client C, given an input x, would like to find a solution y satisfying (x,y) ∈ R, for a given relation R. The client wishes to delegate this work to an (untrusted) advisor A, who has more resources than C. We seek solutions in which the communication from A is short, and, in particular, shorter than the length of the output y. (In particular, this precludes the trivial solution of the advisor sending y and then proving that (x,y) ∈ R using a standard interactive proof.)
We show that such search delegation schemes exist for several problems of interest including (1) longest common subsequence (LCS) and edit distance, (2) parsing context-free grammars and (3) k-SAT.

Justin Holmgren, Andrea Lincoln, and Ron D. Rothblum. Delegation for Search Problems. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 73:1-73:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{holmgren_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.73, author = {Holmgren, Justin and Lincoln, Andrea and Rothblum, Ron D.}, title = {{Delegation for Search Problems}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {73:1--73:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.73}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164146}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.73}, annote = {Keywords: Interactive Proofs, Fine-Grained Complexity, Delegation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

We present a linear space data structure for Dynamic Evaluation of k-CNF Boolean Formulas which achieves O(m^{1-1/k}) query and variable update time where m is the number of clauses in the formula and clauses are of size at most a constant k. Our algorithm is additionally able to count the total number of satisfied clauses. We then show how this data structure can be parallelized in the PRAM model to achieve O(log m) span (i.e. parallel time) and still O(m^{1-1/k}) work. This parallel algorithm works in the stronger Binary Fork model.
We then give a series of lower bounds on the problem including an average-case result showing the lower bounds hold even when the updates to the variables are chosen at random. Specifically, a reduction from k-Clique shows that dynamically counting the number of satisfied clauses takes time at least n^{(2ω-3)/6 √{2k} -1 -o(√k)}, where 2 ≤ ω < 2.38 is the matrix multiplication constant. We show the Combinatorial k-Clique Hypothesis implies a lower bound of m^{(1-k^{-1/2})(1-o(1))} which suggests our algorithm is close to optimal without involving Matrix Multiplication or new techniques. We next give an average-case reduction to k-clique showing the prior lower bounds hold even when the updates are chosen at random. We use our conditional lower bound to show any Binary Fork algorithm solving these problems requires at least Ω(log m) span, which is tight against our algorithm in this model. Finally, we give an unconditional linear space lower bound for Dynamic k-CNF Boolean Formula Evaluation.

Rathish Das, Andrea Lincoln, Jayson Lynch, and J. Ian Munro. Dynamic Boolean Formula Evaluation. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 61:1-61:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61, author = {Das, Rathish and Lincoln, Andrea and Lynch, Jayson and Munro, J. Ian}, title = {{Dynamic Boolean Formula Evaluation}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {61:1--61:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154945}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61}, annote = {Keywords: Data Structures, SAT, Dynamic Algorithms, Boolean Formulas, Fine-grained Complexity, Parallel Algorithms} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We describe an algorithm to solve the problem of Boolean CNF-Satisfiability when the input formula is chosen randomly.
We build upon the algorithms of Schöning 1999 and Dantsin et al. in 2002. The Schöning algorithm works by trying many possible random assignments, and for each one searching systematically in the neighborhood of that assignment for a satisfying solution. Previous algorithms for this problem run in time O(2^(n (1- Ω(1)/k))).
Our improvement is simple: we count how many clauses are satisfied by each randomly sampled assignment, and only search in the neighborhoods of assignments with abnormally many satisfied clauses. We show that assignments like these are significantly more likely to be near a satisfying assignment. This improvement saves a factor of 2^(n Ω(lg² k)/k), resulting in an overall runtime of O(2^(n (1- Ω(lg² k)/k))) for random k-SAT.

Andrea Lincoln and Adam Yedidia. Faster Random k-CNF Satisfiability. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 78:1-78:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lincoln_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.78, author = {Lincoln, Andrea and Yedidia, Adam}, title = {{Faster Random k-CNF Satisfiability}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {78:1--78:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.78}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124857}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.78}, annote = {Keywords: Random k-SAT, Average-Case, Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

We consider space-efficient algorithms and conditional time lower bounds for finding cycles and walks in graphs. We give a reduction that connects the running time of undirected 2k-cycle to finding directed odd cycles, s-t connectivity in directed graphs, and Max-3-SAT. For example, we show that if 2k-cycle on O(n)-edge graphs can be solved in O(n^(1.5-ε)) time for some ε>0 then, a 2^(n(1-ε')) time algorithm exists for Max-3-SAT for some ε'>0. Additionally, we give a tight combinatorial lower bound for 2k-cycle detection, specifically when k is odd, of m^{2k/(k+1) +o(1)} given the Combinatorial k-Clique Hypothesis.
On the algorithms side, we present a randomized algorithm for directed s-t connectivity using O(lg(n)^2) space and O(n^{lg(n)/2 + o(lg(n))}) expected time, giving a time improvement over Savitch’s famous algorithm, which takes at least n^{lg(n) - o(lg(n))} time. Under the conjecture that every O(lg(n)^2)-space algorithm for directed s-t connectivity requires n^Ω(lg(n)) time, we show that undirected 2k-cycle in O(lg(n)) space requires n^Ω(lg(k)) time.

Andrea Lincoln and Nikhil Vyas. Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Cycles and Walks: Small Space and Sparse Graphs. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 11:1-11:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lincoln_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.11, author = {Lincoln, Andrea and Vyas, Nikhil}, title = {{Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Cycles and Walks: Small Space and Sparse Graphs}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {11:1--11:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116969}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.11}, annote = {Keywords: k-cycle, Space, Savitch, Sparse Graphs, Max-3-SAT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

The most studied linear algebraic operation, matrix multiplication, has surprisingly fast O(n^ω) time algorithms for ω < 2.373. On the other hand, the (min,+) matrix product which is at the heart of many fundamental graph problems such as All-Pairs Shortest Paths, has received only minor n^o(1) improvements over its brute-force cubic running time and is widely conjectured to require n^{3-o(1)} time. There is a plethora of matrix products and graph problems whose complexity seems to lie in the middle of these two problems. For instance, the Min-Max matrix product, the Minimum Witness matrix product, All-Pairs Shortest Paths in directed unweighted graphs and determining whether an edge-colored graph contains a monochromatic triangle, can all be solved in Õ(n^{(3+ω)/2}) time. While slight improvements are sometimes possible using rectangular matrix multiplication, if ω=2, the best runtimes for these "intermediate" problems are all Õ(n^2.5).
A similar phenomenon occurs for convolution problems. Here, using the FFT, the usual (+,×)-convolution of two n-length sequences can be solved in O(n log n) time, while the (min,+) convolution is conjectured to require n^{2-o(1)} time, the brute force running time for convolution problems. There are analogous intermediate problems that can be solved in O(n^1.5) time, but seemingly not much faster: Min-Max convolution, Minimum Witness convolution, etc.
Can one improve upon the running times for these intermediate problems, in either the matrix product or the convolution world? Or, alternatively, can one relate these problems to each other and to other key problems in a meaningful way?
This paper makes progress on these questions by providing a network of fine-grained reductions. We show for instance that APSP in directed unweighted graphs and Minimum Witness product can be reduced to both the Min-Max product and a variant of the monochromatic triangle problem, so that a significant improvement over n^{(3+ω)/2} time for any of the latter problems would result in a similar improvement for both of the former problems. We also show that a natural convolution variant of monochromatic triangle is fine-grained equivalent to the famous 3SUM problem. As this variant is solvable in O(n^1.5) time and 3SUM is in O(n^2) time (and is conjectured to require n^{2-o(1)} time), our result gives the first fine-grained equivalence between natural problems of different running times. We also relate 3SUM to monochromatic triangle, and a coin change problem to monochromatic convolution, and thus to 3SUM.

Andrea Lincoln, Adam Polak, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Monochromatic Triangles, Intermediate Matrix Products, and Convolutions. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 53:1-53:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lincoln_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.53, author = {Lincoln, Andrea and Polak, Adam and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia}, title = {{Monochromatic Triangles, Intermediate Matrix Products, and Convolutions}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {53:1--53:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117382}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.53}, annote = {Keywords: 3SUM, fine-grained complexity, matrix multiplication, monochromatic triangle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

This paper initiates the study of I/O algorithms (minimizing cache misses) from the perspective of fine-grained complexity
(conditional polynomial lower bounds). Specifically, we aim to answer why sparse graph problems are so hard, and why the Longest Common Subsequence problem gets a savings of a factor of the size of cache times the length of a cache line, but no more. We take the reductions and techniques from complexity and fine-grained complexity and apply them to the I/O model to generate new (conditional) lower bounds as well as new faster algorithms. We also prove the existence of a time hierarchy for the I/O model, which motivates the fine-grained reductions.
- Using fine-grained reductions, we give an algorithm for distinguishing 2 vs. 3 diameter and radius that runs in O(|E|^2/(MB)) cache misses, which for sparse graphs improves over the previous O(|V|^2/B) running time.
- We give new reductions from radius and diameter to Wiener index and median. These reductions are new in both the RAM and I/O models.
- We show meaningful reductions between problems that have linear-time solutions in the RAM model. The reductions use low I/O complexity (typically O(n/B)), and thus help to finely capture between "I/O linear time" O(n/B) and RAM linear time O(n).
- We generate new I/O assumptions based on the difficulty of improving sparse graph problem running times in the I/O model. We create conjectures that the current best known algorithms for Single Source Shortest Paths (SSSP), diameter, and radius are optimal.
- From these I/O-model assumptions, we show that many of the known reductions in the word-RAM model can naturally extend to hold in the I/O model as well (e.g., a lower bound on the I/O complexity of Longest Common Subsequence that matches the best known running time).
- We prove an analog of the Time Hierarchy Theorem in the I/O model, further motivating the study of fine-grained algorithmic differences.

Erik D. Demaine, Andrea Lincoln, Quanquan C. Liu, Jayson Lynch, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Fine-grained I/O Complexity via Reductions: New Lower Bounds, Faster Algorithms, and a Time Hierarchy. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 34:1-34:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Lincoln, Andrea and Liu, Quanquan C. and Lynch, Jayson and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia}, title = {{Fine-grained I/O Complexity via Reductions: New Lower Bounds, Faster Algorithms, and a Time Hierarchy}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {34:1--34:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83335}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34}, annote = {Keywords: IO model, Fine-grained Complexity, Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

In recent years it has become popular to study dynamic problems in a sensitivity setting: Instead of allowing for an arbitrary sequence of updates, the sensitivity model only allows to apply batch updates of small size to the original input data. The sensitivity model is particularly appealing since recent strong conditional lower bounds ruled out fast algorithms for many dynamic problems, such as shortest paths, reachability, or subgraph connectivity.
In this paper we prove conditional lower bounds for these and additional problems in a sensitivity setting. For example, we show that under the Boolean Matrix Multiplication (BMM) conjecture combinatorial algorithms cannot compute the (4/3-\varepsilon)-approximate diameter of an undirected unweighted dense graph with truly subcubic preprocessing time and truly subquadratic update/query time. This result is surprising since in the static setting it is not clear whether a reduction from BMM to diameter is possible. We further show under the BMM conjecture that many problems, such as reachability or approximate shortest paths, cannot be solved faster than by recomputation from scratch even after only one or two edge insertions. We extend our reduction from BMM to Diameter to give a reduction from All Pairs Shortest Paths to Diameter under one deletion in weighted graphs. This is intriguing, as in the static setting it is a big open problem whether Diameter is as hard as APSP. We further get a nearly tight lower bound for shortest paths after two edge deletions based on the APSP conjecture. We give more lower bounds under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. Many of our lower bounds also hold for static oracle data structures where no sensitivity is required.
Finally, we give the first algorithm for the (1+\varepsilon)-approximate radius, diameter, and eccentricity problems in directed or undirected unweighted graphs in case of single edges failures. The algorithm has a truly subcubic running time for graphs with a truly subquadratic number of edges; it is tight w.r.t. the conditional lower bounds we obtain.

Monika Henzinger, Andrea Lincoln, Stefan Neumann, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Conditional Hardness for Sensitivity Problems. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 26:1-26:31, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{henzinger_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.26, author = {Henzinger, Monika and Lincoln, Andrea and Neumann, Stefan and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia}, title = {{Conditional Hardness for Sensitivity Problems}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {26:1--26:31}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81783}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.26}, annote = {Keywords: sensitivity, conditional lower bounds, data structures, dynamic graph algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

Given a set of numbers, the k-SUM problem asks for a subset of k numbers that sums to zero. When the numbers are integers, the time and space complexity of k-SUM is generally studied in the word-RAM model; when the numbers are reals, the complexity is studied in the real-RAM model, and space is measured by the number of reals held in memory at any point. We present a time and space efficient deterministic self-reduction for the k-SUM problem which holds for both models, and has many interesting consequences. To illustrate:
- 3-SUM is in deterministic time O(n^2*lg(lg(n))/lg(n)) and space O(sqrt(n*lg(n)/lg(lg(n)))). In general, any polylogarithmic-time improvement over quadratic time for 3-SUM can be converted into an algorithm with an identical time improvement but low space complexity as well.
- 3-SUM is in deterministic time O(n^2) and space O(sqrt(n)), derandomizing an algorithm of Wang.
- A popular conjecture states that 3-SUM requires n^{2-o(1)} time on the word-RAM. We show that the 3-SUM Conjecture is in fact equivalent to the (seemingly weaker) conjecture that every O(n^{.51})-space algorithm for 3-SUM requires at least n^{2-o(1)} time on the word-RAM.
- For k >= 4, k-SUM is in deterministic O(n^{k-2+2/k}) time and O(sqrt(n)) space.

Andrea Lincoln, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Joshua R. Wang, and R. Ryan Williams. Deterministic Time-Space Trade-Offs for k-SUM. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 58:1-58:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{lincoln_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58, author = {Lincoln, Andrea and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Wang, Joshua R. and Williams, R. Ryan}, title = {{Deterministic Time-Space Trade-Offs for k-SUM}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {58:1--58:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62250}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58}, annote = {Keywords: 3SUM, kSUM, time-space tradeoff, algorithm} }

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