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Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We study a process of averaging in a distributed system with noisy communication. Each of the agents in the system starts with some value and the goal of each agent is to compute the average of all the initial values. In each round, one pair of agents is drawn uniformly at random from the whole population, communicates with each other and each of these two agents updates their local value based on their own value and the received message. The communication is noisy and whenever an agent sends any value v, the receiving agent receives v+N, where N is a zero-mean Gaussian random variable. The two quality measures of interest are (i) the total sum of squares TSS(t), which measures the sum of square distances from the average load to the initial average and (ii) bar{phi}(t), which measures the sum of square distances from the average load to the running average (average at time t).
It is known that the simple averaging protocol - in which an agent sends its current value and sets its new value to the average of the received value and its current value - converges eventually to a state where bar{phi}(t) is small. It has been observed that TSS(t), due to the noise, eventually diverges and previous research - mostly in control theory - has focused on showing eventual convergence w.r.t. the running average. We obtain the first probabilistic bounds on the convergence time of bar{phi}(t) and precise bounds on the drift of TSS(t) that show that although TSS(t) eventually diverges, for a wide and interesting range of parameters, TSS(t) stays small for a number of rounds that is polynomial in the number of agents. Our results extend to the synchronous setting and settings where the agents are restricted to discrete values and perform rounding.

Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, Yannic Maus, and Dominik Pajak. Noidy Conmunixatipn: On the Convergence of the Averaging Population Protocol. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 148:1-148:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{mallmanntrenn_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.148, author = {Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Maus, Yannic and Pajak, Dominik}, title = {{Noidy Conmunixatipn: On the Convergence of the Averaging Population Protocol}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {148:1--148:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.148}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107240}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.148}, annote = {Keywords: population protocols, noisy communication, distributed averaging} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We give a simple distributed algorithm for computing adjacency matrix eigenvectors for the communication graph in an asynchronous gossip model. We show how to use this algorithm to give state-of-the-art asynchronous community detection algorithms when the communication graph is drawn from the well-studied stochastic block model. Our methods also apply to a natural alternative model of randomized communication, where nodes within a community communicate more frequently than nodes in different communities.
Our analysis simplifies and generalizes prior work by forging a connection between asynchronous eigenvector computation and Oja's algorithm for streaming principal component analysis. We hope that our work serves as a starting point for building further connections between the analysis of stochastic iterative methods, like Oja's algorithm, and work on asynchronous and gossip-type algorithms for distributed computation.

Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, Cameron Musco, and Christopher Musco. Eigenvector Computation and Community Detection in Asynchronous Gossip Models. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 159:1-159:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{mallmanntrenn_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.159, author = {Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Musco, Cameron and Musco, Christopher}, title = {{Eigenvector Computation and Community Detection in Asynchronous Gossip Models}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {159:1--159:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.159}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91639}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.159}, annote = {Keywords: block model, community detection, distributed clustering, eigenvector computation, gossip algorithms, population protocols} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

We consider the problem of estimating the graph size, where one is given only local access to the graph. We formally define a query model in which one starts with a seed node and is allowed to make queries about neighbours of nodes that have already been seen. In the case of undirected graphs, an estimator of Katzir et al. (2014) based on a sample from the stationary distribution pi uses O(1/||pi||_2 + d_avg) queries; we prove that this is tight. In addition, we establish this as a lower bound even when the algorithm is allowed to crawl the graph arbitrarily; the results of Katzir et al. give an upper bound that is worse by a multiplicative factor t_mix(1/n^4).
The picture becomes significantly different in the case of directed graphs. We show that without strong assumptions on the graph structure, the number of nodes cannot be predicted to within a constant multiplicative factor without using a number of queries that are at least linear in the number of nodes; in particular, rapid mixing and small diameter, properties that most real-world networks exhibit, do not suffice. The question of interest is whether any algorithm can beat breadth-first search. We introduce a new parameter, generalising the well-studied conductance, such that if a suitable bound on it exists and is known to the algorithm, the number of queries required is sublinear in the number of edges; we show that this is tight.

Varun Kanade, Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, and Victor Verdugo. How Large Is Your Graph?. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 34:1-34:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{kanade_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.34, author = {Kanade, Varun and Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Verdugo, Victor}, title = {{How Large Is Your Graph?}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {34:1--34:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79767}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.34}, annote = {Keywords: Estimation, Random Walks, Social Networks} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

In the voter model, each node of a graph has an opinion, and in every round each node chooses independently a random neighbour and adopts its opinion. We are interested in the consensus time, which is the first point in time where all nodes have the same opinion. We consider dynamic graphs in which the edges are rewired in every round (by an adversary) giving rise to the graph sequence G_1, G_2, ..., where we assume that G_i has conductance at least phi_i. We assume that the degrees of nodes don't change over time as one can show that the consensus time can become super-exponential otherwise. In the case of a sequence of d-regular graphs, we obtain asymptotically tight results. Even for some static graphs, such as the cycle, our results improve the state of the art. Here we show that the expected number of rounds until all nodes have the same opinion is bounded by O(m/(d_{min}*phi)), for any graph with m edges, conductance phi, and degrees at least d_{min}. In addition, we consider a biased dynamic voter model, where each opinion i is associated with a probability P_i, and when a node chooses a neighbour with that opinion, it adopts opinion i with probability P_i (otherwise the node keeps its current opinion). We show for any regular dynamic graph, that if there is an epsilon > 0 difference between the highest and second highest opinion probabilities, and at least Omega(log(n)) nodes have initially the opinion with the highest probability, then all nodes adopt w.h.p. that opinion. We obtain a bound on the convergence time, which becomes O(log(n)/phi) for static graphs.

Petra Berenbrink, George Giakkoupis, Anne-Marie Kermarrec, and Frederik Mallmann-Trenn. Bounds on the Voter Model in Dynamic Networks. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 146:1-146:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{berenbrink_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.146, author = {Berenbrink, Petra and Giakkoupis, George and Kermarrec, Anne-Marie and Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik}, title = {{Bounds on the Voter Model in Dynamic Networks}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {146:1--146:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.146}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62901}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.146}, annote = {Keywords: Voting, Distributed Computing, Conductance, Dynamic Graphs, Consensus} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 58, 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)

In the deterministic binary majority process we are given a simple graph where each node has one out of two initial opinions. In every round, each node adopts the majority opinion among its neighbors. It is known that this process always converges in O(|E|) rounds to a two-periodic state in which every node either keeps its opinion or changes it in every round.
It has been shown by Frischknecht, Keller, and Wattenhofer (2013) that the O(|E|) bound on the convergence time of the deterministic binary majority process is even for dense graphs tight. However, in many graphs such as the complete graph the process converges in just
a constant number of rounds from any initial opinion assignment.
We show that it is NP-hard to decide whether there exists an initial opinion assignment for which it takes more than k rounds to converge to the two-periodic stable state, for a given integer k. We then give a new upper bound on the voting time of the deterministic binary majority process. Our bound can be computed in linear time by carefully exploiting the structure of the potential function by Goles and Olivos. We identify certain modules of a graph G to obtain a new graph G^Delta. This new graph G^Delta has the property that the worst-case convergence time of G^Delta is an upper bound on that of G. Our new bounds asymptotically improve the best known bounds for various graph classes.

Dominik Kaaser, Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, and Emanuele Natale. On the Voting Time of the Deterministic Majority Process. In 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 58, pp. 55:1-55:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{kaaser_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.55, author = {Kaaser, Dominik and Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Natale, Emanuele}, title = {{On the Voting Time of the Deterministic Majority Process}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)}, pages = {55:1--55:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-016-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {58}, editor = {Faliszewski, Piotr and Muscholl, Anca and Niedermeier, Rolf}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64675}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.55}, annote = {Keywords: distributed voting, majority rule} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

We consider plurality consensus in networks of n nodes. Initially, each node has one of k opinions. The nodes execute a (randomized) distributed protocol to agree on the plurality opinion (the opinion initially supported by the most nodes). In certain types of networks the nodes can be quite cheap and simple, and hence one seeks protocols that are not only time efficient but also simple and space efficient. Typically, protocols depend heavily on the employed communication mechanism, which ranges from sequential (only one pair of nodes communicates at any time) to fully parallel (all nodes communicate with all their neighbors at once) and everything in-between.
We propose a framework to design protocols for a multitude of communication mechanisms. We introduce protocols that solve the plurality consensus problem and are, with probability 1-o(1), both time and space efficient. Our protocols are based on an interesting relationship between plurality consensus and distributed load balancing. This relationship allows us to design protocols that generalize the state of the art for a large range of problem parameters.

Petra Berenbrink, Tom Friedetzky, Peter Kling, Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, and Chris Wastell. Plurality Consensus in Arbitrary Graphs: Lessons Learned from Load Balancing. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{berenbrink_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.10, author = {Berenbrink, Petra and Friedetzky, Tom and Kling, Peter and Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Wastell, Chris}, title = {{Plurality Consensus in Arbitrary Graphs: Lessons Learned from Load Balancing}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {10:1--10:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63610}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.10}, annote = {Keywords: Plurality Consensus, Distributed Computing, Load Balancing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

A palindrome is defined as a string which reads forwards the same as backwards, like, for example, the string "racecar". In the Palindrome Problem, one tries to find all palindromes in a given string. In contrast, in the case of the Longest Palindromic Substring Problem, the goal is to find an arbitrary one of the longest palindromes in the string.
In this paper we present three algorithms in the streaming model for the the above problems, where at any point in time we are only allowed to use sublinear space. We first present a one-pass randomized algorithm that solves the Palindrome Problem. It has an additive error and uses square root of n space. We also give two variants of the algorithm which solve related and practical problems. The second algorithm determines the exact locations of all longest palindromes using two passes and square root of n space. The third algorithm is a one-pass randomized algorithm, which solves the Longest Palindromic Substring Problem. It has a multiplicative error using only O(log(n)) space.

Petra Berenbrink, Funda Ergün, Frederik Mallmann-Trenn, and Erfan Sadeqi Azer. Palindrome Recognition In The Streaming Model. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 149-161, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{berenbrink_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.149, author = {Berenbrink, Petra and Erg\"{u}n, Funda and Mallmann-Trenn, Frederik and Sadeqi Azer, Erfan}, title = {{Palindrome Recognition In The Streaming Model}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {149--161}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.149}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44544}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.149}, annote = {Keywords: Palindromes, Streaming Model, Complementary Palindrome} }

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