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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

The Gilbert-Varshamov (GV) bound is a classical existential result in coding theory. It implies that a random linear binary code of rate ε² has relative distance at least 1/2 - O(ε) with high probability. However, it is a major challenge to construct explicit codes with similar parameters.
One hope to derandomize the Gilbert-Varshamov construction is with code concatenation: We begin with a (hopefully explicit) outer code 𝒞_out over a large alphabet, and concatenate that with a small binary random linear code 𝒞_in. It is known that when we use independent small codes for each coordinate, then the result lies on the GV bound with high probability, but this still uses a lot of randomness. In this paper, we consider the question of whether code concatenation with a single random linear inner code 𝒞_in can lie on the GV bound; and if so what conditions on 𝒞_out are sufficient for this.
We show that first, there do exist linear outer codes 𝒞_out that are "good" for concatenation in this sense (in fact, most linear codes codes are good). We also provide two sufficient conditions for 𝒞_out, so that if 𝒞_out satisfies these, 𝒞_out∘𝒞_in will likely lie on the GV bound. We hope that these conditions may inspire future work towards constructing explicit codes 𝒞_out.

Dean Doron, Jonathan Mosheiff, and Mary Wootters. When Do Low-Rate Concatenated Codes Approach The Gilbert-Varshamov Bound?. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 53:1-53:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53, author = {Doron, Dean and Mosheiff, Jonathan and Wootters, Mary}, title = {{When Do Low-Rate Concatenated Codes Approach The Gilbert-Varshamov Bound?}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {53:1--53:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210467}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53}, annote = {Keywords: Error-correcting codes, Concatenated codes, Derandomization, Gilbert-Varshamov bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

Random subspaces X of ℝⁿ of dimension proportional to n are, with high probability, well-spread with respect to the 𝓁₂-norm. Namely, every nonzero x ∈ X is "robustly non-sparse" in the following sense: x is ε ‖x‖₂-far in 𝓁₂-distance from all δ n-sparse vectors, for positive constants ε, δ bounded away from 0. This "𝓁₂-spread" property is the natural counterpart, for subspaces over the reals, of the minimum distance of linear codes over finite fields, and corresponds to X being a Euclidean section of the 𝓁₁ unit ball. Explicit 𝓁₂-spread subspaces of dimension Ω(n), however, are unknown, and the best known explicit constructions (which achieve weaker spread properties), are analogs of low density parity check (LDPC) codes over the reals, i.e., they are kernels of certain sparse matrices.
Motivated by this, we study the spread properties of the kernels of sparse random matrices. We prove that with high probability such subspaces contain vectors x that are o(1)⋅‖x‖₂-close to o(n)-sparse with respect to the 𝓁₂-norm, and in particular are not 𝓁₂-spread. This is strikingly different from the case of random LDPC codes, whose distance is asymptotically almost as good as that of (dense) random linear codes.
On the other hand, for p < 2 we prove that such subspaces are 𝓁_p-spread with high probability. The spread property of sparse random matrices thus exhibits a threshold behavior at p = 2. Our proof for p < 2 moreover shows that a random sparse matrix has the stronger restricted isometry property (RIP) with respect to the 𝓁_p norm, and in fact this follows solely from the unique expansion of a random biregular graph, yielding a somewhat unexpected generalization of a similar result for the 𝓁₁ norm [Berinde et al., 2008]. Instantiating this with suitable explicit expanders, we obtain the first explicit constructions of 𝓁_p-RIP matrices for 1 ≤ p < p₀, where 1 < p₀ < 2 is an absolute constant.

Venkatesan Guruswami, Peter Manohar, and Jonathan Mosheiff. 𝓁_p-Spread and Restricted Isometry Properties of Sparse Random Matrices. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 7:1-7:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.7, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Manohar, Peter and Mosheiff, Jonathan}, title = {{𝓁\underlinep-Spread and Restricted Isometry Properties of Sparse Random Matrices}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {7:1--7:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165695}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.7}, annote = {Keywords: Spread Subspaces, Euclidean Sections, Restricted Isometry Property, Sparse Matrices} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

Suppose that 𝒫 is a property that may be satisfied by a random code C ⊂ Σⁿ. For example, for some p ∈ (0,1), 𝒫 might be the property that there exist three elements of C that lie in some Hamming ball of radius pn. We say that R^* is the threshold rate for 𝒫 if a random code of rate R^* + ε is very likely to satisfy 𝒫, while a random code of rate R^* - ε is very unlikely to satisfy 𝒫. While random codes are well-studied in coding theory, even the threshold rates for relatively simple properties like the one above are not well understood.
We characterize threshold rates for a rich class of properties. These properties, like the example above, are defined by the inclusion of specific sets of codewords which are also suitably "symmetric." For properties in this class, we show that the threshold rate is in fact equal to the lower bound that a simple first-moment calculation obtains. Our techniques not only pin down the threshold rate for the property 𝒫 above, they give sharp bounds on the threshold rate for list-recovery in several parameter regimes, as well as an efficient algorithm for estimating the threshold rates for list-recovery in general.

Venkatesan Guruswami, Jonathan Mosheiff, Nicolas Resch, Shashwat Silas, and Mary Wootters. Sharp Threshold Rates for Random Codes. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 5:1-5:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.5, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Mosheiff, Jonathan and Resch, Nicolas and Silas, Shashwat and Wootters, Mary}, title = {{Sharp Threshold Rates for Random Codes}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {5:1--5:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135446}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.5}, annote = {Keywords: Coding theory, Random codes, Sharp thresholds} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

A family of error-correcting codes is list-decodable from error fraction p if, for every code in the family, the number of codewords in any Hamming ball of fractional radius p is less than some integer L that is independent of the code length. It is said to be list-recoverable for input list size 𝓁 if for every sufficiently large subset of codewords (of size L or more), there is a coordinate where the codewords take more than 𝓁 values. The parameter L is said to be the "list size" in either case. The capacity, i.e., the largest possible rate for these notions as the list size L → ∞, is known to be 1-h_q(p) for list-decoding, and 1-log_q 𝓁 for list-recovery, where q is the alphabet size of the code family.
In this work, we study the list size of random linear codes for both list-decoding and list-recovery as the rate approaches capacity. We show the following claims hold with high probability over the choice of the code (below q is the alphabet size, and ε > 0 is the gap to capacity).
- A random linear code of rate 1 - log_q(𝓁) - ε requires list size L ≥ 𝓁^{Ω(1/ε)} for list-recovery from input list size 𝓁. This is surprisingly in contrast to completely random codes, where L = O(𝓁/ε) suffices w.h.p.
- A random linear code of rate 1 - h_q(p) - ε requires list size L ≥ ⌊ {h_q(p)/ε+0.99}⌋ for list-decoding from error fraction p, when ε is sufficiently small.
- A random binary linear code of rate 1 - h₂(p) - ε is list-decodable from average error fraction p with list size with L ≤ ⌊ {h₂(p)/ε}⌋ + 2. (The average error version measures the average Hamming distance of the codewords from the center of the Hamming ball, instead of the maximum distance as in list-decoding.)
The second and third results together precisely pin down the list sizes for binary random linear codes for both list-decoding and average-radius list-decoding to three possible values.
Our lower bounds follow by exhibiting an explicit subset of codewords so that this subset - or some symbol-wise permutation of it - lies in a random linear code with high probability. This uses a recent characterization of (Mosheiff, Resch, Ron-Zewi, Silas, Wootters, 2019) of configurations of codewords that are contained in random linear codes. Our upper bound follows from a refinement of the techniques of (Guruswami, Håstad, Sudan, Zuckerman, 2002) and strengthens a previous result of (Li, Wootters, 2018), which applied to list-decoding rather than average-radius list-decoding.

Venkatesan Guruswami, Ray Li, Jonathan Mosheiff, Nicolas Resch, Shashwat Silas, and Mary Wootters. Bounds for List-Decoding and List-Recovery of Random Linear Codes. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 9:1-9:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.9, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Li, Ray and Mosheiff, Jonathan and Resch, Nicolas and Silas, Shashwat and Wootters, Mary}, title = {{Bounds for List-Decoding and List-Recovery of Random Linear Codes}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {9:1--9:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126126}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.9}, annote = {Keywords: list-decoding, list-recovery, random linear codes, coding theory} }

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