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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 307, 30th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2024)

The constraint satisfaction problem asks to decide if a set of constraints over a relational structure 𝒜 is satisfiable (CSP(𝒜)). We consider CSP(𝒜 ∪ ℬ) where 𝒜 is a structure and ℬ is an alien structure, and analyse its (parameterized) complexity when at most k alien constraints are allowed. We establish connections and obtain transferable complexity results to several well-studied problems that previously escaped classification attempts. Our novel approach, utilizing logical and algebraic methods, yields an FPT versus pNP dichotomy for arbitrary finite structures and sharper dichotomies for Boolean structures and first-order reducts of (ℕ, =) (equality CSPs), together with many partial results for general ω-categorical structures.

Peter Jonsson, Victor Lagerkvist, and George Osipov. CSPs with Few Alien Constraints. In 30th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 307, pp. 15:1-15:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{jonsson_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2024.15, author = {Jonsson, Peter and Lagerkvist, Victor and Osipov, George}, title = {{CSPs with Few Alien Constraints}}, booktitle = {30th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2024)}, pages = {15:1--15:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-336-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {307}, editor = {Shaw, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2024.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207005}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2024.15}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint satisfaction, parameterized complexity, hybrid theories} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

Constraint satisfaction problems form a nicely behaved class of problems that lends itself to complexity classification results. From the point of view of parameterized complexity, a natural task is to classify the parameterized complexity of MinCSP problems parameterized by the number of unsatisfied constraints. In other words, we ask whether we can delete at most k constraints, where k is the parameter, to get a satisfiable instance. In this work, we take a step towards classifying the parameterized complexity for an important infinite-domain CSP: Allen’s interval algebra (IA). This CSP has closed intervals with rational endpoints as domain values and employs a set A of 13 basic comparison relations such as "precedes" or "during" for relating intervals. IA is a highly influential and well-studied formalism within AI and qualitative reasoning that has numerous applications in, for instance, planning, natural language processing and molecular biology. We provide an FPT vs. W[1]-hard dichotomy for MinCSP(Γ) for all Γ ⊆ A. IA is sometimes extended with unions of the relations in A or first-order definable relations over A, but extending our results to these cases would require first solving the parameterized complexity of Directed Symmetric Multicut, which is a notorious open problem. Already in this limited setting, we uncover connections to new variants of graph cut and separation problems. This includes hardness proofs for simultaneous cuts or feedback arc set problems in directed graphs, as well as new tractable cases with algorithms based on the recently introduced flow augmentation technique. Given the intractability of MinCSP(A) in general, we then consider (parameterized) approximation algorithms. We first show that MinCSP(A) cannot be polynomial-time approximated within any constant factor and continue by presenting a factor-2 fpt-approximation algorithm. Once again, this algorithm has its roots in flow augmentation.

Konrad K. Dabrowski, Peter Jonsson, Sebastian Ordyniak, George Osipov, Marcin Pilipczuk, and Roohani Sharma. Parameterized Complexity Classification for Interval Constraints. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 11:1-11:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{dabrowski_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.11, author = {Dabrowski, Konrad K. and Jonsson, Peter and Ordyniak, Sebastian and Osipov, George and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity Classification for Interval Constraints}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {11:1--11:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194306}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.11}, annote = {Keywords: (minimum) constraint satisfaction problem, Allen’s interval algebra, parameterized complexity, cut problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We study the parameterized complexity of MinCSP for so-called equality languages, i.e., for finite languages over an infinite domain such as ℕ, where the relations are defined via first-order formulas whose only predicate is =. This is an important class of languages that forms the starting point of all study of infinite-domain CSPs under the commonly used approach pioneered by Bodirsky, i.e., languages defined as reducts of finitely bounded homogeneous structures. Moreover, MinCSP over equality languages forms a natural class of optimisation problems in its own right, covering such problems as Edge Multicut, Steiner Multicut and (under singleton expansion) Edge Multiway Cut. We classify MinCSP(Γ) for every finite equality language Γ, under the natural parameter, as either FPT, W[1]-hard but admitting a constant-factor FPT-approximation, or not admitting a constant-factor FPT-approximation unless FPT=W[2]. In particular, we describe an FPT case that slightly generalises Multicut, and show a constant-factor FPT-approximation for Disjunctive Multicut, the generalisation of Multicut where the "cut requests" come as disjunctions over O(1) individual cut requests s_i ≠ t_i. We also consider singleton expansions of equality languages, enriching an equality language with the capability for assignment constraints (x = i) for either a finite or infinitely many constants i, and fully characterize the complexity of the resulting MinCSP.

George Osipov and Magnus Wahlström. Parameterized Complexity of Equality MinCSP. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 86:1-86:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{osipov_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.86, author = {Osipov, George and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Equality MinCSP}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {86:1--86:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.86}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187393}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.86}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, constraint satisfaction, parameterized approximation} }

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