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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 257, 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)

Full-bond percolation with parameter p is the process in which, given a graph, for every edge independently, we keep the edge with probability p and delete it with probability 1-p. Bond percolation is studied in parallel computing and network science to understand the resilience of distributed systems to random link failure and the spread of information in networks through unreliable links. Moreover, the full-bond percolation is equivalent to the Reed-Frost process, a network version of SIR epidemic spreading.
We consider one-dimensional power-law small-world graphs with parameter α obtained as the union of a cycle with additional long-range random edges: each pair of nodes {u,v} at distance L on the cycle is connected by a long-range edge {u,v}, with probability proportional to 1/L^α. Our analysis determines three phases for the percolation subgraph G_p of the small-world graph, depending on the value of α.
- If α < 1, there is a p < 1 such that, with high probability, there are Ω(n) nodes that are reachable in G_p from one another in 𝒪(log n) hops;
- If 1 < α < 2, there is a p < 1 such that, with high probability, there are Ω(n) nodes that are reachable in G_p from one another in log^{𝒪(1)}(n) hops;
- If α > 2, for every p < 1, with high probability all connected components of G_p have size 𝒪(log n).

Luca Becchetti, Andrea Clementi, Francesco Pasquale, Luca Trevisan, and Isabella Ziccardi. Bond Percolation in Small-World Graphs with Power-Law Distribution. In 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 257, pp. 3:1-3:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becchetti_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2023.3, author = {Becchetti, Luca and Clementi, Andrea and Pasquale, Francesco and Trevisan, Luca and Ziccardi, Isabella}, title = {{Bond Percolation in Small-World Graphs with Power-Law Distribution}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-275-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {257}, editor = {Doty, David and Spirakis, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179392}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Information spreading, gossiping, epidemics, fault-tolerance, network self-organization and formation, complex systems, social and transportation networks} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Consensus and Broadcast are two fundamental problems in distributed computing, whose solutions have several applications. Intuitively, Consensus should be no harder than Broadcast, and this can be rigorously established in several models. Can Consensus be easier than Broadcast?
In models that allow noiseless communication, we prove a reduction of (a suitable variant of) Broadcast to binary Consensus, that preserves the communication model and all complexity parameters such as randomness, number of rounds, communication per round, etc., while there is a loss in the success probability of the protocol. Using this reduction, we get, among other applications, the first logarithmic lower bound on the number of rounds needed to achieve Consensus in the uniform GOSSIP model on the complete graph. The lower bound is tight and, in this model, Consensus and Broadcast are equivalent.
We then turn to distributed models with noisy communication channels that have been studied in the context of some bio-inspired systems. In such models, only one noisy bit is exchanged when a communication channel is established between two nodes, and so one cannot easily simulate a noiseless protocol by using error-correcting codes. An Ω(ε^{-2} n) lower bound is proved by Boczkowski et al. [PLOS Comp. Bio. 2018] on the convergence time of binary Broadcast in one such model (noisy uniform PULL), where ε is a parameter that measures the amount of noise).
We prove an O(ε^{-2} log n) upper bound on the convergence time of binary Consensus in such model, thus establishing an exponential complexity gap between Consensus versus Broadcast. We also prove our upper bound above is tight and this implies, for binary Consensus, a further strong complexity gap between noisy uniform PULL and noisy uniform PUSH. Finally, we show a Θ(ε^{-2} n log n) bound for Broadcast in the noisy uniform PULL.

Andrea Clementi, Luciano Gualà, Emanuele Natale, Francesco Pasquale, Giacomo Scornavacca, and Luca Trevisan. Consensus vs Broadcast, with and Without Noise (Extended Abstract). In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 42:1-42:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{clementi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.42, author = {Clementi, Andrea and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Natale, Emanuele and Pasquale, Francesco and Scornavacca, Giacomo and Trevisan, Luca}, title = {{Consensus vs Broadcast, with and Without Noise}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {42:1--42:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117277}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.42}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Computing, Consensus, Broadcast, Gossip Models, Noisy Communication Channels} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

Spectral techniques have proved amongst the most effective approaches to graph clustering. However, in general they require explicit computation of the main eigenvectors of a suitable matrix (usually the Laplacian matrix of the graph).
Recent work (e.g., Becchetti et al., SODA 2017) suggests that observing the temporal evolution of the power method applied to an initial random vector may, at least in some cases, provide enough information on the space spanned by the first two eigenvectors, so as to allow recovery of a hidden partition without explicit eigenvector computations. While the results of Becchetti et al. apply to perfectly balanced partitions and/or graphs that exhibit very strong forms of regularity, we extend their approach to graphs containing a hidden k partition and characterized by a milder form of volume-regularity. We show that the class of k-volume regular graphs is the largest class of undirected (possibly weighted) graphs whose transition matrix admits k "stepwise" eigenvectors (i.e., vectors that are constant over each set of the hidden partition). To obtain this result, we highlight a connection between volume regularity and lumpability of Markov chains. Moreover, we prove that if the stepwise eigenvectors are those associated to the first k eigenvalues and the gap between the k-th and the (k+1)-th eigenvalues is sufficiently large, the Averaging dynamics of Becchetti et al. recovers the underlying community structure of the graph in logarithmic time, with high probability.

Luca Becchetti, Emilio Cruciani, Francesco Pasquale, and Sara Rizzo. Step-By-Step Community Detection in Volume-Regular Graphs. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 20:1-20:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{becchetti_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.20, author = {Becchetti, Luca and Cruciani, Emilio and Pasquale, Francesco and Rizzo, Sara}, title = {{Step-By-Step Community Detection in Volume-Regular Graphs}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {20:1--20:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115163}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.20}, annote = {Keywords: Community detection, Distributed algorithms, Dynamics, Markov chains, Spectral analysis} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

The Undecided-State Dynamics is a well-known protocol for distributed consensus. We analyze it in the parallel PULL communication model on the complete graph with n nodes for the binary case (every node can either support one of two possible colors, or be in the undecided state).
An interesting open question is whether this dynamics is an efficient Self-Stabilizing protocol, namely, starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, it reaches consensus quickly (i.e., within a polylogarithmic number of rounds). Previous work in this setting only considers initial color configurations with no undecided nodes and a large bias (i.e., Theta(n)) towards the majority color.
In this paper we present an unconditional analysis of the Undecided-State Dynamics that answers to the above question in the affirmative. We prove that, starting from any initial configuration, the process reaches a monochromatic configuration within O(log n) rounds, with high probability. This bound turns out to be tight. Our analysis also shows that, if the initial configuration has bias Omega(sqrt(n log n)), then the dynamics converges toward the initial majority color, with high probability.

Andrea Clementi, Mohsen Ghaffari, Luciano Gualà, Emanuele Natale, Francesco Pasquale, and Giacomo Scornavacca. A Tight Analysis of the Parallel Undecided-State Dynamics with Two Colors. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 28:1-28:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{clementi_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.28, author = {Clementi, Andrea and Ghaffari, Mohsen and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Natale, Emanuele and Pasquale, Francesco and Scornavacca, Giacomo}, title = {{A Tight Analysis of the Parallel Undecided-State Dynamics with Two Colors}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {28:1--28:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96107}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.28}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Consensus, Self-Stabilization, PULL Model, Markov Chains} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

Consider the following asynchronous, opportunistic communication model over a graph G: in each round, one edge is activated uniformly and independently at random and (only) its two endpoints can exchange messages and perform local computations. Under this model, we study the following random process: The first time a vertex is an endpoint of an active edge, it chooses a random number, say +/- 1 with probability 1/2; then, in each round, the two endpoints of the currently active edge update their values to their average.
We provide a rigorous analysis of the above process showing that, if G exhibits a two-community structure (for example, two expanders connected by a sparse cut), the values held by the nodes will collectively reflect the underlying community structure over a suitable phase of the above process. Our analysis requires new concentration bounds on the product of certain random matrices that are technically challenging and possibly of independent interest.
We then exploit our analysis to design the first opportunistic protocols that approximately recover community structure using only logarithmic (or polylogarithmic, depending on the sparsity of the cut) work per node.

Luca Becchetti, Andrea Clementi, Pasin Manurangsi, Emanuele Natale, Francesco Pasquale, Prasad Raghavendra, and Luca Trevisan. Average Whenever You Meet: Opportunistic Protocols for Community Detection. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{becchetti_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.7, author = {Becchetti, Luca and Clementi, Andrea and Manurangsi, Pasin and Natale, Emanuele and Pasquale, Francesco and Raghavendra, Prasad and Trevisan, Luca}, title = {{Average Whenever You Meet: Opportunistic Protocols for Community Detection}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {7:1--7:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94705}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.7}, annote = {Keywords: Community Detection, Random Processes, Spectral Analysis} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

The Undecided-State Dynamics is a well-known protocol that achieves Consensus in distributed systems formed by a set of n anonymous nodes interacting via a communication network. We consider this dynamics in the parallel PULL communication model on the complete graph for the binary case, i.e., when every node can either support one of two possible colors or stay in the undecided state. Previous work in this setting only considers initial color configurations with no undecided nodes and a large bias (i.e., Theta(n)) towards the majority color. A interesting open question here is whether this dynamics reaches consensus quickly, i.e. within a polylogarithmic number of rounds. In this paper we present an unconditional analysis of the Undecided-State Dynamics which answers to the above question in the affirmative. Our analysis shows that, starting from any initial configuration, the Undecided-State Dynamics reaches a monochromatic configuration within O(log^2 n) rounds, with high probability (w.h.p.). Moreover, we prove that if the initial configuration has bias Omega(sqrt(n log n)), then the dynamics converges toward the initial majority color within O(log n) round, w.h.p. At the heart of our approach there is a new analysis of the symmetry-breaking phase that the process must perform in order to escape from (almost-)unbiased configurations. Previous symmetry-breaking analysis of consensus dynamics essentially concern sequential communication models (such as Population Protocols) and/or symmetric updated rules (such as majority rules).

Andrea Clementi, Luciano Gualà, Francesco Pasquale, and Giacomo Scornavacca. Brief Announcement: On the Parallel Undecided-State Dynamics with Two Colors. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 47:1-47:4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{clementi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.47, author = {Clementi, Andrea and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Pasquale, Francesco and Scornavacca, Giacomo}, title = {{Brief Announcement: On the Parallel Undecided-State Dynamics with Two Colors}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {47:1--47:4}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79724}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.47}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Consensus, Dynamics, Gossip model, Markov chains} }