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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

We study the problem of constructing a data structure that can store a two-dimensional polygonal curve P, such that for any query segment ab one can efficiently compute the Fréchet distance between P and ab. First we present a data structure of size O(n log n) that can compute the Fréchet distance between P and a horizontal query segment ab in O(log n) time, where n is the number of vertices of P. In comparison to prior work, this significantly reduces the required space. We extend the type of queries allowed, as we allow a query to be a horizontal segment ab together with two points s, t ∈ P (not necessarily vertices), and ask for the Fréchet distance between ab and the curve of P in between s and t. Using O(nlog²n) storage, such queries take O(log³ n) time, simplifying and significantly improving previous results. We then generalize our results to query segments of arbitrary orientation. We present an O(nk^{3+ε}+n²) size data structure, where k ∈ [1,n] is a parameter the user can choose, and ε > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant, such that given any segment ab and two points s, t ∈ P we can compute the Fréchet distance between ab and the curve of P in between s and t in O((n/k)log²n+log⁴ n) time. This is the first result that allows efficient exact Fréchet distance queries for arbitrarily oriented segments.
We also present two applications of our data structure. First, we show that our data structure allows us to compute a local δ-simplification (with respect to the Fréchet distance) of a polygonal curve in O(n^{5/2+ε}) time, improving a previous O(n³) time algorithm. Second, we show that we can efficiently find a translation of an arbitrary query segment ab that minimizes the Fréchet distance with respect to a subcurve of P.

Maike Buchin, Ivor van der Hoog, Tim Ophelders, Lena Schlipf, Rodrigo I. Silveira, and Frank Staals. Efficient Fréchet Distance Queries for Segments. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 29:1-29:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.29, author = {Buchin, Maike and van der Hoog, Ivor and Ophelders, Tim and Schlipf, Lena and Silveira, Rodrigo I. and Staals, Frank}, title = {{Efficient Fr\'{e}chet Distance Queries for Segments}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {29:1--29:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169671}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.29}, annote = {Keywords: Computational Geometry, Data Structures, Fr\'{e}chet distance} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

Laman graphs are the minimally rigid graphs in the plane. We present two algorithms for recognizing planar Laman graphs. A simple algorithm with running time O(n^(3/2)) and a more complicated algorithm with running time O(n log^3 n) based on involved planar network flow algorithms. Both improve upon the previously fastest algorithm for general graphs by Gabow and Westermann [Algorithmica, 7(5-6):465 - 497, 1992] with running time O(n sqrt{n log n}).
To solve this problem we introduce two algorithms (with the running times stated above) that check whether for a directed planar graph G, disjoint sets S, T subseteq V(G), and a fixed k the following connectivity condition holds: for each vertex s in S there are k directed paths from s to T pairwise having only vertex s in common. This variant of connectivity seems interesting on its own.

Jonathan Rollin, Lena Schlipf, and André Schulz. Recognizing Planar Laman Graphs. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 79:1-79:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{rollin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.79, author = {Rollin, Jonathan and Schlipf, Lena and Schulz, Andr\'{e}}, title = {{Recognizing Planar Laman Graphs}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {79:1--79:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.79}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112001}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.79}, annote = {Keywords: planar graphs, Laman graphs, network flow, connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

We introduce a variant of the watchman route problem, which we call the quickest pair-visibility problem. Given two persons standing at points s and t in a simple polygon P with no holes, we want to minimize the distance these persons travel in order to see each other in P. We solve two variants of this problem, one minimizing the longer distance the two persons travel (min-max) and one minimizing the total travel distance (min-sum), optimally in linear time. We also consider a query version of this problem for the min-max variant. We can preprocess a simple n-gon in linear time so that the minimum of the longer distance the two persons travel can be computed in O(log^2 n) time for any two query positions where the two persons lie.

Hee-Kap Ahn, Eunjin Oh, Lena Schlipf, Fabian Stehn, and Darren Strash. On Romeo and Juliet Problems: Minimizing Distance-to-Sight. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{ahn_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.6, author = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Oh, Eunjin and Schlipf, Lena and Stehn, Fabian and Strash, Darren}, title = {{On Romeo and Juliet Problems: Minimizing Distance-to-Sight}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {6:1--6:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88322}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.6}, annote = {Keywords: Visibility polygon, shortest-path, watchman problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

Canonical orderings and their relatives such as st-numberings have been used as a key tool in algorithmic graph theory for the last decades. Recently, a unifying link behind all these orders has been shown that links them to well-known graph decompositions into parts that have a prescribed vertex-connectivity.
Despite extensive interest in canonical orderings, no analogue of this unifying concept is known for edge-connectivity. In this paper, we establish such a concept named edge-orders and show how to compute (1,1)-edge-orders of 2-edge-connected graphs as well as (2,1)-edge-orders of 3-edge-connected graphs in linear time, respectively. While the former can be seen as the edge-variants of st-numberings, the latter are the edge-variants of Mondshein sequences and non-separating ear decompositions. The methods that we use for obtaining such edge-orders differ considerably in almost all details from the ones used for their vertex-counterparts, as different graph-theoretic constructions are used in the inductive proof and standard reductions from edge- to vertex-connectivity are bound to fail.
As a first application, we consider the famous Edge-Independent Spanning Tree Conjecture, which asserts that every k-edge-connected graph contains k rooted spanning trees that are pairwise edge-independent. We illustrate the impact of the above edge-orders by deducing algorithms that construct 2- and 3-edge independent spanning trees of 2- and 3-edge-connected graphs, the latter of which improves the best known running time from O(n^2) to linear time.

Lena Schlipf and Jens M. Schmidt. Edge-Orders. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 75:1-75:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{schlipf_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.75, author = {Schlipf, Lena and Schmidt, Jens M.}, title = {{Edge-Orders}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {75:1--75:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.75}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74078}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.75}, annote = {Keywords: edge-order, st-edge-order, canonical ordering, edge-independent spanning tree, Mondshein sequence, linear time} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

We show how to preprocess a polygonal domain with a fixed starting point s in order to answer efficiently the following queries: Given a point q, how should one move from s in order to see q as soon as possible? This query resembles the well-known shortest-path-to-a-point query, except that the latter asks for the fastest way to reach q, instead of seeing it. Our solution methods include a data structure for a different generalization of shortest-path-to-a-point queries, which may be of independent interest: to report efficiently a shortest path from s to a query segment in the domain.

Esther M. Arkin, Alon Efrat, Christian Knauer, Joseph S. B. Mitchell, Valentin Polishchuk, Günter Rote, Lena Schlipf, and Topi Talvitie. Shortest Path to a Segment and Quickest Visibility Queries. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 658-673, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{arkin_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.658, author = {Arkin, Esther M. and Efrat, Alon and Knauer, Christian and Mitchell, Joseph S. B. and Polishchuk, Valentin and Rote, G\"{u}nter and Schlipf, Lena and Talvitie, Topi}, title = {{Shortest Path to a Segment and Quickest Visibility Queries}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {658--673}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.658}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51474}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.658}, annote = {Keywords: path planning, visibility, query structures and complexity, persistent data structures, continuous Dijkstra} }

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