Document

Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 255, 26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023)

Subgraph counting is a fundamental problem that spans many areas in computer science: database theory, logic, network science, data mining, and complexity theory. Given a large input graph G and a small pattern graph H, we wish to count the number of occurrences of H in G. In recent times, there has been a resurgence on using an old (maybe overlooked?) technique of orienting the edges of G and H, and then using a combination of brute-force enumeration and indexing. These orientation techniques appear to give the best of both worlds. There is a rigorous theoretical explanation behind these techniques, and they also have excellent empirical behavior (on large real-world graphs). Time and again, graph orientations help solve subgraph counting problems in various computational models, be it sampling, streaming, distributed, etc. In this paper, we give some short vignettes on how the orientation technique solves a variety of algorithmic problems.

C. Seshadhri. Some Vignettes on Subgraph Counting Using Graph Orientations (Invited Talk). In 26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 255, pp. 3:1-3:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{seshadhri:LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.3, author = {Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Some Vignettes on Subgraph Counting Using Graph Orientations}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-270-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {255}, editor = {Geerts, Floris and Vandevoort, Brecht}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-177454}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: subgraph counting, graph degeneracy, homomorphism counting, graph algorithms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Finding large cliques or cliques missing a few edges is a fundamental algorithmic task in the study of real-world graphs, with applications in community detection, pattern recognition, and clustering. A number of effective backtracking-based heuristics for these problems have emerged from recent empirical work in social network analysis. Given the NP-hardness of variants of clique counting, these results raise a challenge for beyond worst-case analysis of these problems. Inspired by the triadic closure of real-world graphs, Fox et al. (SICOMP 2020) introduced the notion of c-closed graphs and proved that maximal clique enumeration is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to c.
In practice, due to noise in data, one wishes to actually discover "near-cliques", which can be characterized as cliques with a sparse subgraph removed. In this work, we prove that many different kinds of maximal near-cliques can be enumerated in polynomial time (and FPT in c) for c-closed graphs. We study various established notions of such substructures, including k-plexes, complements of bounded-degeneracy and bounded-treewidth graphs. Interestingly, our algorithms follow relatively simple backtracking procedures, analogous to what is done in practice. Our results underscore the significance of the c-closed graph class for theoretical understanding of social network analysis.

Balaram Behera, Edin Husić, Shweta Jain, Tim Roughgarden, and C. Seshadhri. FPT Algorithms for Finding Near-Cliques in c-Closed Graphs. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 17:1-17:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{behera_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.17, author = {Behera, Balaram and Husi\'{c}, Edin and Jain, Shweta and Roughgarden, Tim and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{FPT Algorithms for Finding Near-Cliques in c-Closed Graphs}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {17:1--17:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156130}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.17}, annote = {Keywords: c-closed graph, dense subgraphs, FPT algorithm, enumeration algorithm, k-plex, Moon-Moser theorem} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

We consider the problem of counting all k-vertex subgraphs in an input graph, for any constant k. This problem (denoted SUB-CNT_k) has been studied extensively in both theory and practice. In a classic result, Chiba and Nishizeki (SICOMP 85) gave linear time algorithms for clique and 4-cycle counting for bounded degeneracy graphs. This is a rich class of sparse graphs that contains, for example, all minor-free families and preferential attachment graphs. The techniques from this result have inspired a number of recent practical algorithms for SUB-CNT_k. Towards a better understanding of the limits of these techniques, we ask: for what values of k can SUB_CNT_k be solved in linear time?
We discover a chasm at k=6. Specifically, we prove that for k < 6, SUB_CNT_k can be solved in linear time. Assuming a standard conjecture in fine-grained complexity, we prove that for all k ⩾ 6, SUB-CNT_k cannot be solved even in near-linear time.

Suman K. Bera, Noujan Pashanasangi, and C. Seshadhri. Linear Time Subgraph Counting, Graph Degeneracy, and the Chasm at Size Six. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 38:1-38:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bera_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.38, author = {Bera, Suman K. and Pashanasangi, Noujan and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Linear Time Subgraph Counting, Graph Degeneracy, and the Chasm at Size Six}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {38:1--38:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117239}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.38}, annote = {Keywords: Subgraph counting, bounded degeneracy graphs, fine-grained complexity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

Testing monotonicity of a Boolean function f:{0,1}^n -> {0,1} is an important problem in the field of property testing. It has led to connections with many interesting combinatorial questions on the directed hypercube: routing, random walks, and new isoperimetric theorems. Denoting the proximity parameter by epsilon, the best tester is the non-adaptive O~(epsilon^{-2}sqrt{n}) tester of Khot-Minzer-Safra (FOCS 2015). A series of recent results by Belovs-Blais (STOC 2016) and Chen-Waingarten-Xie (STOC 2017) have led to Omega~(n^{1/3}) lower bounds for adaptive testers. Reducing this gap is a significant question, that touches on the role of adaptivity in monotonicity testing of Boolean functions.
We approach this question from the perspective of parametrized property testing, a concept recently introduced by Pallavoor-Raskhodnikova-Varma (ACM TOCT 2017), where one seeks to understand performance of testers with respect to parameters other than just the size. Our result is an adaptive monotonicity tester with one-sided error whose query complexity is O(epsilon^{-2}I(f)log^5 n), where I(f) is the total influence of the function. Therefore, adaptivity provably helps monotonicity testing for low influence functions.

Deeparnab Chakrabarty and C. Seshadhri. Adaptive Boolean Monotonicity Testing in Total Influence Time. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 20:1-20:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{chakrabarty_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.20, author = {Chakrabarty, Deeparnab and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Adaptive Boolean Monotonicity Testing in Total Influence Time}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {20:1--20:7}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101133}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.20}, annote = {Keywords: Property Testing, Monotonicity Testing, Influence of Boolean Functions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We propose a new distribution-free model of social networks. Our definitions are motivated by one of the most universal signatures of social networks, triadic closure - the property that pairs of vertices with common neighbors tend to be adjacent. Our most basic definition is that of a c-closed graph, where for every pair of vertices u,v with at least c common neighbors, u and v are adjacent. We study the classic problem of enumerating all maximal cliques, an important task in social network analysis. We prove that this problem is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to c on c-closed graphs. Our results carry over to weakly c-closed graphs, which only require a vertex deletion ordering that avoids pairs of non-adjacent vertices with c common neighbors. Numerical experiments show that well-studied social networks tend to be weakly c-closed for modest values of c.

Jacob Fox, Tim Roughgarden, C. Seshadhri, Fan Wei, and Nicole Wein. Finding Cliques in Social Networks: A New Distribution-Free Model. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 55:1-55:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{fox_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.55, author = {Fox, Jacob and Roughgarden, Tim and Seshadhri, C. and Wei, Fan and Wein, Nicole}, title = {{Finding Cliques in Social Networks: A New Distribution-Free Model}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {55:1--55:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90596}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.55}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithms, social networks, fixed-parameter tractability} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study the problem of testing unateness of functions f:{0,1}^d -> R. We give an O(d/\epsilon . log(d/\epsilon))-query nonadaptive tester and an O(d/\epsilon)-query adaptive tester and show that both testers are optimal for a fixed distance parameter \epsilon. Previously known unateness testers worked only for Boolean functions, and their query complexity had worse dependence on the dimension both for the adaptive and the nonadaptive case. Moreover, no lower bounds for testing unateness were known. We generalize our results to obtain optimal unateness testers for functions f:[n]^d -> R.
Our results establish that adaptivity helps with testing unateness of real-valued functions on domains of the form {0,1}^d and, more generally, [n]^d. This stands in contrast to the situation for monotonicity testing where there is no adaptivity gap for functions f:[n]^d -> R.

Roksana Baleshzar, Deeparnab Chakrabarty, Ramesh Krishnan S. Pallavoor, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and C. Seshadhri. Optimal Unateness Testers for Real-Valued Functions: Adaptivity Helps. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{baleshzar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.5, author = {Baleshzar, Roksana and Chakrabarty, Deeparnab and Pallavoor, Ramesh Krishnan S. and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Optimal Unateness Testers for Real-Valued Functions: Adaptivity Helps}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74844}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.5}, annote = {Keywords: Property testing, unate and monotone functions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We revisit the classic problem of estimating the degree distribution moments of an undirected graph. Consider an undirected graph G=(V,E) with n (non-isolated) vertices, and define (for s > 0) mu_s = 1\n * sum_{v in V} d^s_v. Our aim is to estimate mu_s within a multiplicative error of (1+epsilon) (for a given approximation parameter epsilon>0) in sublinear time. We consider the sparse graph model that allows access to: uniform random vertices, queries for the degree of any vertex, and queries for a neighbor of any vertex. For the case of s=1 (the average degree), \widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n}) queries suffice for any constant epsilon (Feige, SICOMP 06 and Goldreich-Ron, RSA 08). Gonen-Ron-Shavitt (SIDMA 11) extended this result to all integral s > 0, by designing an algorithms that performs \widetilde{O}(n^{1-1/(s+1)}) queries. (Strictly speaking, their algorithm approximates the number of star-subgraphs of a given size, but a slight modification gives an algorithm for moments.)
We design a new, significantly simpler algorithm for this problem. In the worst-case, it exactly matches the bounds of Gonen-Ron-Shavitt, and has a much simpler proof. More importantly, the running time of this algorithm is connected to the degeneracy of G. This is (essentially) the maximum density of an induced subgraph. For the family of graphs with degeneracy at most alpha, it has a query complexity of widetilde{O}\left(\frac{n^{1-1/s}}{\mu^{1/s}_s} \Big(\alpha^{1/s} + \min\{\alpha,\mu^{1/s}_s\}\Big)\right) = \widetilde{O}(n^{1-1/s}\alpha/\mu^{1/s}_s). Thus, for the class of bounded degeneracy graphs (which includes all minor closed families and preferential attachment graphs), we can estimate the average degree in \widetilde{O}(1) queries, and can estimate the variance of the degree distribution in \widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n}) queries. This is a major improvement over the previous worst-case bounds. Our key insight is in designing an estimator for mu_s that has low variance when G does not have large dense subgraphs.

Talya Eden, Dana Ron, and C. Seshadhri. Sublinear Time Estimation of Degree Distribution Moments: The Degeneracy Connection. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.7, author = {Eden, Talya and Ron, Dana and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Sublinear Time Estimation of Degree Distribution Moments: The Degeneracy Connection}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {7:1--7:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73747}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.7}, annote = {Keywords: Sublinear algorithms, Degree distribution, Graph moments} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

We revisit the classical problem of computing the contour tree of a scalar field f:M to R, where M is a triangulated simplicial mesh in R^d. The contour tree is a fundamental topological structure that tracks the evolution of level sets of f and has numerous applications in data analysis and visualization.
All existing algorithms begin with a global sort of at least all critical values of f, which can require (roughly) Omega(n log n) time. Existing lower bounds show that there are pathological instances where this sort is required. We present the first algorithm whose time complexity depends on the contour tree structure, and avoids the global sort for non-pathological inputs. If C denotes the set of critical points in M, the running time is roughly O(sum_{v in C} log l_v), where l_v is the depth of v in the contour tree. This matches all existing upper bounds, but is a significant asymptotic improvement when the contour tree is short and fat. Specifically, our approach ensures that any comparison made is between nodes that are either adjacent in M or in the same descending path in the contour tree, allowing us to argue strong optimality properties of our algorithm.
Our algorithm requires several novel ideas: partitioning M in well-behaved portions, a local growing procedure to iteratively build contour trees, and the use of heavy path decompositions for the time complexity analysis.

Benjamin Raichel and C. Seshadhri. Avoiding the Global Sort: A Faster Contour Tree Algorithm. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 57:1-57:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{raichel_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.57, author = {Raichel, Benjamin and Seshadhri, C.}, title = {{Avoiding the Global Sort: A Faster Contour Tree Algorithm}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {57:1--57:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-59490}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.57}, annote = {Keywords: contour trees, computational topology, computational geometry} }

X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Feedback submitted

Please try again later or send an E-mail