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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 223, 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)

This paper focuses on the concept of partial permutations and their use in algorithmic tasks. A partial permutation over Σ is a bijection π_{par}: Σ₁↦Σ₂ mapping a subset Σ₁ ⊂ Σ to a subset Σ₂ ⊂ Σ, where |Σ₁| = |Σ₂| (|Σ| denotes the size of a set Σ). Intuitively, two partial permutations agree if their mapping pairs do not form conflicts. This notion, which is formally defined in this paper, enables a consistent as well as informatively rich comparison between partial permutations. We formalize the Partial Permutations Agreement problem (PPA), as follows. Given two sets A₁, A₂ of partial permutations over alphabet Σ, each of size n, output all pairs (π_i, π_j), where π_i ∈ A₁, π_j ∈ A₂ and π_i agrees with π_j. The possibility of having a data structure for efficiently maintaining a dynamic set of partial permutations enabling to retrieve agreement of partial permutations is then studied, giving both negative and positive results. Applying our study enables to point out fruitful versus futile methods for efficient genes sequences comparison in database or automatic color transformation data augmentation technique for image processing through neural networks. It also shows that an efficient solution of strict Parameterized Dictionary Matching with One Gap (PDMOG) over general dictionary alphabets is not likely, unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) fails, thus negatively answering an open question posed lately.

Avivit Levy, Ely Porat, and B. Riva Shalom. Partial Permutations Comparison, Maintenance and Applications. In 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 223, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{levy_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2022.10, author = {Levy, Avivit and Porat, Ely and Shalom, B. Riva}, title = {{Partial Permutations Comparison, Maintenance and Applications}}, booktitle = {33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-234-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {223}, editor = {Bannai, Hideo and Holub, Jan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161376}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: Partial permutations, Partial words, Genes comparison, Color transformation, Dictionary matching with gaps, Parameterized matching, SETH hypothesis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

We examine the complexity of the online Dictionary Matching with One Gap Problem (DMOG) which is the following. Preprocess a dictionary D of d patterns, where each pattern contains a special gap symbol that can match any string, so that given a text that arrives online, a character at a time, we can report all of the patterns from D that are suffixes of the text that has arrived so far, before the next character arrives. In more general versions the gap symbols are associated with bounds determining the possible lengths of matching strings. Online DMOG captures the difficulty in a bottleneck procedure for cyber-security, as many digital signatures of viruses manifest themselves as patterns with a single gap.
In this paper, we demonstrate that the difficulty in obtaining efficient solutions for the DMOG problem, even in the offline setting, can be traced back to the infamous 3SUM conjecture. We show a conditional lower bound of Omega(delta(G_D)+op) time per text character, where G_D is a bipartite graph that captures the structure of D, delta(G_D) is the degeneracy of this graph, and op is the output size. Moreover, we show a conditional lower bound in terms of the magnitude of gaps for the bounded case, thereby showing that some known offline upper bounds are essentially optimal.
We also provide matching upper-bounds (up to sub-polynomial factors), in terms of the degeneracy, for the online DMOG problem. In particular, we introduce algorithms whose time cost depends linearly on delta(G_D). Our algorithms make use of graph orientations, together with some additional techniques. These algorithms are of practical interest since although delta(G_D) can be as large as sqrt(d), and even larger if G_D is a multi-graph, it is typically a very small constant in practice. Finally, when delta(G_D) is large we are able to obtain even more efficient solutions.

Amihood Amir, Tsvi Kopelowitz, Avivit Levy, Seth Pettie, Ely Porat, and B. Riva Shalom. Mind the Gap: Essentially Optimal Algorithms for Online Dictionary Matching with One Gap. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 12:1-12:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{amir_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.12, author = {Amir, Amihood and Kopelowitz, Tsvi and Levy, Avivit and Pettie, Seth and Porat, Ely and Shalom, B. Riva}, title = {{Mind the Gap: Essentially Optimal Algorithms for Online Dictionary Matching with One Gap}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {12:1--12:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-67841}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.12}, annote = {Keywords: Pattern matching, Dictionary matching, 3SUM, Triangle reporting} }

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